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Numerical Study of the Mechanical Behavior of a Foundation Raft under the Hydrodynamic Influence of the Mechanical Characteristics of Clay Soils

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Document pages: 16 pages

Abstract: The clay soils of the city of Douala are constantly saturated with water, which permanently favors the hydrodynamic behavior of the soils (swelling or consolidation). This phenomenon can cause serious disturbances in the structure of buildings resulting in the appearance of cracks in structures (buildings, road bridge, viaduct, etc.). The foundation raft is a very important structure in the dimensioning of structures. Given the soil-structure interactions, its mechanical characteristics must be the subject of a special study linked to the building environment. In this article, we present a study of the mechanical behavior of a foundation raft anchored in a laminate floor. The aim is to highlight the influence of the mechanical properties of the foundation soil on the evolution of the mechanical behavior of the raft. The method used is a numerical simulation. A physical model taking into account a 5-storey building based in Douala in the Denver district is studied. The foundation on the raft foundation of this building follows an elastic constitutive law with Mazars damage, and rests on a laminated soil of plastic elastic model with Camclay plasticity criterion. The ground-raft and ground-ground interfaces are carried out with the finite elements joined to three nodes (JOI3), and obey the Coulomb model; it is an expansion joint model with Mohr-Coulomb type criterion and associated flow. The numerical resolution is carried out by the finite element method, and the numerical simulations via the Cast3M calculation code. The results from the simulations show that the mechanical characteristics of foundation soils, in this case the water content, the compactness, the state of consolidation, greatly influence the mechanical behavior of the foundation slab. There is indeed a significant settlement and a great deformation of the raft foundation when the water content of the soil layers increases, and when the states of consolidation and compactness are low. This article allows us to predict and control the evolution of the behavior of the ground-structure interface of a raft foundation and to adopt a new model appropriate for the sizing of civil engineering structures.

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