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Emotional Experience of Consumption of Fast Food—A Study of College Students in Sultanate of Oman

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Open Journal of Business and Management, 2020, 8, 452-466 https://www.eduzhai.net/?go=ojbm ISSN Online: 2329-3292 ISSN Print: 2329-3284 Emotional Experience of Consumption of Fast Food—A Study of College Students in Sultanate of Oman T. Kalakumari*, Saed Adnan Mustafa, Randolf Von Narbay Salindo Department of Business Administration, Sur University College, Sur, Sultanate of Oman How to cite this paper: Kalakumari, T., Saed, A.M. and Salindo, R.V.N. (2020) Emotional Experience of Consumption of Fast Food—A Study of College Students in Sultanate of Oman. Open Journal of Business and Management, 8, 452-466. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 Received: December 23, 2019 Accepted: February 1, 2020 Published: February 4, 2020 Copyright © 2020 by author(s) and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Open Access Abstract In the present scenario, most of the peoples are consuming fast food items for the purpose of solving the cooking hazards. These fast food items are consumed by different age wise people like children, adults, young and old to eat the food in a tasty manner. The Pew Research Center report shows that, there are 50 million Americans who eat fast food daily. In the US, the value of food trade is about 198.9 billion US$. By the year 2020, this figure is anticipated to travel on the far side 223 billion. The advance development of fast food business has created different household brand names, such as McDonald’s, KFC and other similar brands. McDonald’s, Pizza Hut and KFC yield maximum revenue in the fast food business. Nowadays a variety of fast food items is consumed by people. Fast food products are prominently sold in small coffee shops and other restaurants. The choice of selecting a fast food item is very difficult for consumers. Thus, consumers take utmost care in selecting a fast food product. In short, majority of the consumers focus on qualitative and innovative fast food items. Consumers’ choices may be varied based on their demographic and psychological characteristics. Majority of the students always use fast food items in the morning, noon and evening to fulfill their needs. This paper shows that the consumer perspective and buying pattern of fast food products consumed by college students are emotional in their day to day life. Keywords Consumer Behaviour, Emotional Experience, Fast Food, Influential Factors 1. Introduction In the present scenario, most of the peoples are consuming fast food items for DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 Feb. 4, 2020 452 Open Journal of Business and Management DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 T. Kalakumari et al. the purpose of solving the cooking hazards. These fast food items are consumed by different age wise people like children, adults, young and old to eat the food in a tasty manner [1]. The research report according to Pew shows that, Americans eat fast food daily with approximately 50 billion. In the US, the value of food trade is just about 198.9 billion US dollars [2]. By 2020, this figure is anticipated to travel on the far side 223 billion. The thought of this massive market consists of restaurants and drive-thrus, cafeterias and buffets. Generally the fast food manufacturing corporation has produced a number of brand names, both nationally and internationally. The main familiar fast food industry is McDonald’s with a brand value of 88 billion US dollars and above [3]. In 2016, the most valuable fast food brand in the world was McDonald’s and KFC. In 2015, McDonald’s was also the biggest fast food corporation in terms of profits, followed by Sandwich and Yum Brands, parent of Taco Bell and Pizza Hut. Fast food could also be a straight forward choice for school and college students [4]; its nutritional content positively won’t offer energy to you. Usually, a fast food meal is worth [5] 37% of your daily calorie intake, 33.6% of daily fat, and 15.4% of daily protein. As food trends quickly shift to healthier choices, it seems that the food business is maintaining the pace. This booming business wins the hearts of fifty million Americans each day. Nowadays a variety of fast food items is consumed by people. Fast food products are prominently sold in small coffee shops and small and medium restaurants. The choice of selecting a fast food item is very difficult for consumers. Thus, consumers take utmost care in selecting a fast food product [6]. In short, majority of the consumers focus on qualitative and innovative fast food items. Consumers’ choices may be varied based on their demographic and psychological characteristics. Majority of the students always use fast food items in the morning, noon and evening to fulfill their needs [7]. This paper shows that the emotional experience of fast food products is used by college students in their day to day life. 1.1. Problem Statement In the modern world, college students are facing lots of troubles in their health. Modern fast food products influence students through different creative and innovative food items [8]. The cost of fast food is comparatively small and tastes are excellent; however the harmful impacts are on human health much longer than these direct concerns [9]. The content of high calorie meals moves toward heavy weight, cholesterol, salt and sugar—and therefore it leads to fewer vitamins, minerals and other nutrients in the human body than in good health foods [10]. The health issues that stem from overweight and fat alone will severely limit lifestyles and shorten life spans. Hence, this paper aims to analyze the purpose of using fast food, factors impressed the students to buy the fast food items and examine the emotional experience of consumption of fast food items used by the college students in their daily life. 453 Open Journal of Business and Management T. Kalakumari et al. DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 1.2. Objectives of the Study 1) To study the emotional experience of utilization of fast food. 2) To identify the purpose of using fast food items by college students. 3) To analyze the factors impressed the students to buy fast food items. 2. Review of Literature Anita [11] Goyal and N. P. Singh (2008), have inspected the customer discernment about inexpensive food in India and they have discovered that youthful Indian has enthusiasm for visiting cheap food outlets for entertainment only and change yet home nourishment their first decision. Buyer attributes impacting inexpensive food utilization in Turkey was researched by Cuma [12] Akbay, Gulgun Yildiz Tiryaki and Aykut Gul (2007) and the outcomes indicated that age, pay, instruction, family unit size, nearness of youngsters and different factors altogether impact the inexpensive food utilization conduct in Turkey. Another investigation has made by Elizabeth [13] Denney-Wilson, Anthony D. Okely, Louise Hardy, David Crawford and Timothy Dobbins (2009) on effects on utilization of soda pops and quick nourishments youths in New South Wales and their outcomes demonstrated that over portion of the young men and more than 33% of the young ladies detailed drinking soda pops every day, and utilization topped in grade eight understudies in the investigation zone. Another examination has done by Bala Swamy [14], Anil Kumar and Srinivasa Rao (2012) have investigated the purchasing conduct of shoppers towards moment nourishment items in India and their outcomes recommend that the normal per capita buy and per capita use on moment nourishment items had a positive association with pay of family units. A past report has done by Vinit [15] Dani and Vanishree Pabalkar (2013) with respect to on investigating of purchaser conduct towards inexpensive food industry in Pune and their discoveries uncovers that Indian cheap food showcase is developing at a yearly development pace of 30% - 35% and other famous natural pecking order have colossal plans of extension in future. Anand, (2011) [16] said that, the youngsters had been fonder of setting off to the drive-through joints for having a ton of fun on certain events like birthday events, results and even together parties. The adolescents accepted that Fast nourishments tastes are so delectable great to those youths, which cause them to accept that inexpensive food is speedy, simple and fulfilling as cheap food focuses had been making “esteem” dinners for kids that are expanded in parcel measures and turning into a design, as clients are eating as well as appreciating the earth. 3. Research Design In the exploration configuration process, the specialist received helpful examining strategy for gathering information. The understudies were chosen and it was guaranteed that the individuals are exceptionally utilizing the inexpensive food 454 Open Journal of Business and Management DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 T. Kalakumari et al. things in their everyday life. On receiving this technique absolutely two universities were chosen from Sultanate of Oman. From every school 82 understudies were chosen. So the proposed test size of 164 understudies is taken up for the examination. As needs be, 164 polls were gathered and 14 surveys were avoided because of a lot of missing information. Subsequently, 150 substantial polls were utilized for the investigation. Sources of Data Collection This exploration comprises of both essential and auxiliary information. Survey strategy was pursued for gathering the information. Essential information for this exploration was gathered through surveys and direct vis-à-vis discussion among the respondents. Optional information for this investigation was created from the web, various periodicals, books, magazines and the legislative distributed archives. 4. Data Analysis and Interpretation Table 1 infers that, majority of the respondents procure fast food for saving time, it is graded in main position with the average score of 3.60. Subsequently, it is observed that the respondents’ are purchasing fast food for opting variety of menu; it is rated in second position with an average score of 3.59. Further, the sample subjects consume fast food for fun; it is graded in third position with the mean score of 3.56. Further it is observed that the sample respondents are procuring fast food for fewer prices and for other reasons like delicious, and convenient to eat in different places. The rest of the variables are graded in fourth, fifth and sixth position with an average score of 3.49, 3.43 and 3.33 respectively. From Table 1 it is proved that, greater part of the respondents procure fast food for time saving purpose, it is graded in the first position with the average score of 3.60. H1: There exists no relationship between demographic status of college students and the purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. From Table 2, the results of computed ANOVA test values (3.729, 0.823, 1.568 and 1.278) are not found to significant at five per cent and rejected hypothesis. It has been confirmed that there exists relationship between gender of students and the purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. Table 3 shows that, the results of computed ANOVA test values (0.251, 1.208, 4.468 and 1.911) are not found to significant at five per cent and rejected hypothesis. It has been declared that there exists relationship between age of students and the purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. From Table 4, it has been proved that the results of computed ANOVA test values (3.154, 0.520, 0.016 and 0.559) are not found to significant at five per cent and rejected hypothesis. It has been confirmed that there exists relationship between marital status of students and the purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. 455 Open Journal of Business and Management T. Kalakumari et al. DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 The results of computed ANOVA test values (13.142, 8.216, 2.938 and 10.922) in Table 5 are found to significant at five per cent and accepted hypothesis. It has been declared that there exists no relationship between education level of students and the purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. Table 1. Purpose of consuming fast food. Sl. No Purpose of Using Fast Food 1. Saves Time 2. Variety of Menu 3. Convenient 4. Delicious 5. For Fun 6. Inexpensive Source: Primary Data. Sum Mean Rank 540 3.60 1 538 3.59 2 500 3.33 6 514 3.43 5 534 3.56 3 524 3.49 4 Table 2. Result of summary of statistics and one-way ANOVA association between gender of students and purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. Variables Saves Time Variety of Menu Convenient Delicious For Fun Inexpensive Level of Significance: 5 per cent. Male Mean SD 4.167 1.367 3.833 1.599 3.000 1.661 2.500 1.526 4.333 1.516 3.167 1.895 Female Mean SD F Value Sig 3.458 1.887 3.729 0.055 3.525 1.680 0.823 0.366 3.417 1.622 1.568 0.212 3.658 1.627 12.460 0.001 3.367 1.705 8.046 0.005 3.575 1.738 1.278 0.260 Table 3. Result of summary statistics and one-way ANOVA association between age of students and purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. Variables 16 - 20 Years 21 - 25 Years 26 - 30 Years 30 Years and Above F Value Sig Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Saves Time 3.565 1.974 3.680 1.647 3.600 1.813 2.973 1.307 0.251 0.861 Variety of Menu 3.794 1.426 3.220 1.844 3.587 1.664 3.293 1.126 8.403 0.000 Convenient 3.304 1.636 3.440 1.567 3.333 1.633 3.047 1.150 4.486 0.005 Delicious For Fun Inexpensive 3.424 1.528 3.580 1.980 3.427 1.668 3.455 1.150 1.208 0.309 3.641 1.635 3.340 1.780 3.560 1.709 3.360 1.200 4.468 0.105 3.272 1.967 3.740 1.411 3.493 1.771 3.209 1.296 1.911 0.130 Level of Significance: 5 per cent. 456 Open Journal of Business and Management DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 T. Kalakumari et al. Table 4. Result of summary statistics and one-way ANOVA association between marital status of students and purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. Variables Saves Time Variety of Menu Convenient Delicious For Fun Inexpensive Level of Significance: 5 per cent. Married Mean SD 2.500 1.604 4.000 2.138 2.000 1.069 3.500 0.535 4.000 2.138 3.409 1.783 Unmarried Mean SD 3.662 1.810 3.563 1.639 3.409 1.629 3.423 1.711 3.535 1.687 3.493 1.771 F Value 3.154 0.520 5.816 0.016 0.559 6.333 Sig 0.078 0.472 0.017 0.899 0.456 0.013 Table 5. Result of summary statistics and one-way ANOVA association between education level of students and purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. Variables School Mean SD Diploma Mean SD Graduate Mean SD Post Graduate F Mean SD Value Sig Saves Time 5.409 0.796 3.253 1.677 3.759 1.994 2.000 1.069 13.142 0.000 Variety of Menu 4.046 0.653 3.615 1.919 3.448 1.404 2.500 0.535 1.800 0.150 Convenient 2.409 1.469 3.308 1.590 3.517 1.526 5.500 0.535 8.216 0.000 Delicious 3.364 1.497 3.418 1.521 3.069 2.137 5.000 1.069 2.938 0.035 For Fun 3.318 1.555 3.374 1.710 4.069 1.889 4.500 0.535 2.226 0.088 Inexpensive 2.455 1.969 4.033 1.735 3.138 0.990 1.500 0.535 10.922 0.000 Level of Significance: 5 per cent. From Tables 2-4 it has been cleared that the results of computed ANOVA test values (gender, age and marital status) are not found to significant at five per cent and rejected hypothesis. It has been confirmed that there exists association between demographic status of college students and the purposes stated by them for consuming the fast food. Table 6 clearly shows the Factor analysis relating to the factors impressed students to buy the fast food. Considered twelve variables are: freshness, hygiene, nutritious, low fat content, rich fat content, reasonable price, different varieties, advertisement, emotional satisfaction, taste, healthy product and economical. Five factors extracted on Table 7 together account for 84.334 per cent of the total variance (information contained in the original twelve variables). 1) Hygiene Factor: Freshness, hygiene, taste and healthy product are grouped as first factor and it is valid for 38.499 per cent of the total variance. 2) Price & Variety: Reasonable price and different varieties comprise the second factor and it’s comprised for 14.498 per cent of the total variance. 3) Promotions: Low fat content and advertisement comprise the third factor and it’s measured for 12.567 per cent of the total variance. 457 Open Journal of Business and Management T. Kalakumari et al. DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 Table 6. Factors impressed students to buy the fast food. Sl. No Factors 1. Freshness 2. Hygiene 3. Nutritious 4. Low Fat Content 5. Rich Fat Content 6. Reasonable Price 7. Different Varieties 8. Advertisement 9. Emotional Satisfaction 10. Taste 11. Healthy Product 12. Economical Source: Primary Data. Sum Mean Rank 1004 6.69 6 1118 7.45 2 820 5.47 11 981 6.54 7 865 5.77 9 1053 7.02 4 1070 7.13 3 1031 6.87 5 903 6.02 8 1191 7.94 1 814 5.43 12 850 5.67 10 Table 7. Rotated component matrix factors impressed students to buy the fast food. Variables X1-Freshness X2-Hygiene X3-Nutritious X4-Low Fat Content X5-Rich Fat Content X6-Reasonable Price X7-Different Varieties X8-Advertisement X9-Emotional Satisfaction X10-Taste X11-Healthy Product X12-Economical Eigen Value Hygiene Factor 0.849 0.811 0.645 0.570 4.420 % of Variance 38.499 Cumulative 38.499 Level of Significance: 5 per cent. Price & Variety 0.819 0.787 1.740 14.498 52.997 Factors Promotions - Health Factors - - - - - - 0.927 - 0.838 - - - - 0.662 - - - - - - - - 0.767 1.508 1.319 12.567 10.995 65.564 76.559 Nutritious& Satisfaction 0.931 0.583 0.933 7.775 84.334 4) Health Factors: Rich fat content and economical composes the fourth factor and it’s measured for 10.995 per cent of the total variance. 5) Nutritious & Satisfaction: Nutritious and emotional satisfaction 458 Open Journal of Business and Management T. Kalakumari et al. represents the fifth factor and it financial statement for 7.775% of the total variance. From the above Figure 1, it has been experimented that although there are twelve primary components only 4 factors have Eigen values over one. Table 8 shows the alpha values and indicates significant correlation and internal consistency between the variables tested. Reliability analysis’ Cronbach’s Alpha values for the factors that persuade the emotional consumption of fast food were grouped under five heads: factor I (0.829), factor II (0.803), factor III (0.780), factor IV (0.743) and factor V (0.662). Tables 9-11 show the emotional experience of students and their consumption patterns according to five strategic experiential modules and it has been summarized in Table 12. It shows the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin test and it’s based on the correlation and partial correlation of the variables. Out of twenty five variables considered it has been found that the value of test statistic is 0.895, which means the factor analysis for the identified variables is found to be appropriate to the data. The Bartlett’s test of sphericity chi-square (3303.181) is used to test whether the correlation matrix is an identity matrix. Here the significant value is 0.000 which indicates that there exits significant relationship among the variables. Table 13 and Table 14 clearly depict the Rotated component matrix for students emotional experience of consumption of fast food and all five factors derived together account for 86.836% of the total variance (information contained in the original twenty five variables). Table 15 shows the summary of Reliability analysis’s Cronbach’s Alpha values for the factors that influence the consumption of fast food were grouped under five heads: strongly agree (0.946), agree (0.897), neutral (0.855), disagree (0.845) and strongly disagree (0.837). The alpha values indicate significant correlation and internal consistency between the variables tested. DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 Figure 1. Scree plot factors impressed students to buy the fast food. 459 Open Journal of Business and Management T. Kalakumari et al. DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 Table 8. Summary of rotation factor analysis & Cronbach’s alpha factors impressed college students to buy the fast food. Factors Variables included in the factors Cronbach’s Alpha Hygiene Factor Freshness, hygiene, taste and healthy product 0.829 Price & Variety Reasonable price and different varieties 0.803 Promotions Low fat content and advertisement 0.780 Health Factors Rich fat content and economical 0.743 Nutritious & Satisfaction Nutritious and emotional satisfaction 0.662 Source: Computed From Primary Data. Table 9. Students emotional experience of consumption of fast food. Variables Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Sum Mean Rank Sense Experience Quality of Fast Food is Really Good 39 43 29 26 13 (26.00) (28.67) (19.33) (17.33) (8.67) 519 3.46 4 Creation of Fast Food are 29 74 20 27 0 Simple (19.33) (49.33) (13.33) (18.00) (0.00) 555 3.70 1 Fast Food Assure Your Health in the form Good Strength 44 (29.33) 28 (18.67) 19 (12.67) 35 (23.33) 24 (16.00) 483 3.22 5 The Overall Performance of Fast Food Let You Feel Joyfully Satisfies 31 (20.67) 63 (42.00) 29 (19.33) 22 (14.67) 5 (3.33) 543 3.62 2 The Minimum Quantity of Fast Food Can Enough one Time Lunch or Snacks 30 (20.00) 65 (43.33) 25 (16.67) 21 (14.00) 9 (6.00) 536 3.57 3 Feel Experience The Consuming of Fast Food Let me have Warm Feelings 25 (16.67) 53 (35.33) 34 (22.67) 38 (25.33) 0 (0.00) 515 3.43 3 The Status Attitude of Fast Food lets Consumers 20 Satisfy and Receive the (13.33) Respect 48 (32.00) 39 (26.00) 30 (20.00) 13 (8.67) 482 3.21 5 Usage of Fast Food Lets People Feel that is in Keeping with the Fashion 21 (14.00) 56 (37.33) 36 (24.00) 25 (16.67) 12 (8.00) The Whole Performance of Fast Food has not Affected my Mood Response 16 (10.67) 60 (40.00) 62 (41.33) 12 (8.00) 0 (0.00) The Variety of Fast Food Provides me in a 21 Nourishing and Delicious (14.00) Taste 75 (50.00) 42 (28.00) 12 (8.00) 0 (0.00) 499 3.33 4 530 3.53 2 555 3.70 1 Source: Primary Data. 460 Open Journal of Business and Management DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.82028 T. Kalakumari et al. Table 10. Students emotional experience of consumption of fast food. Variables Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Sum Mean Rank Think Experience Fast Food can Stimulate 39 28 49 30 4 my Curiosity (26.00) (18.67) (32.67) (20.00) (2.67) 518 3.45 1 Fast Food Make Consumers Feel Surprising 29 38 34 25 24 (19.33) (25.33) (22.67) (16.67) (16.00) 473 3.15 3 Fast Food can Stimulate me the thinking of Other Related thing Like Health Immune System and 31 (20.67) 25 (16.67) 40 (26.67) 24 (16.00) 30 (20.00) 453 3.02 5 Source of Energy etc. … Fast Food can Stimulate 34 43 21 34 18 my Imagination (22.67) (28.67) (14.00) (22.67) (12.00) 491 3.27 2 Fast Food can Stimulate 25 30 44 38 13 my Creative thinking (16.67) (20.00) (29.33) (25.33) (8.67) 466 3.11 4 Act Experience Fast Food Merchandises 25 53 23 27 22 Attract me to Purchase (16.67) (35.33) (15.33) (18.00) (14.67) 482 3.21 2 Fast Food Tries to make me to Think about my Health Improvement 29 39 (19.33) (26.00) 25 (16.67) 41 (27.33) 16 (10.67) 474 3.16 3 Fast Food Provides any Health Improvement 26 26 18 64 16 (17.33) (17.33) (12.00) (42.67) (10.67) 432 2.88 5 Fast Food Provides me growth and Maintenance of Bones 25 (16.67) 16 (10.67) 45 (30.00) 47 (31.33) 17 (11.33) 435 2.90 4 Fast Food makes me to Think about my Mental and Physical Development 41 (27.33) 27 (18.00) 43 (28.67) 30 (20.00) 9 (6.00) 511 3.41 1 Source: Primary Data. Table 11. Students emotional experience of consumption of fast food. Variables Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Sum Mean Rank Relate Experience Fast Food Causes me to 20 40 22 39 29 Improve the Health (13.33) (26.67) (14.67) (26.00) (19.33) 433 2.89 3 Fast Food Enables me to have the Sense of Belonging to the Doctor 27 (18.00) 32 (21.33) 39 (26.00) 44 (29.33) 8 (5.33) 476 3.17 2 Fast Food Creates a Good Relationship between me and my Family 17 (11.33) 25 (16.67) 53 (35.33) 34 (22.67) 21 (14.00) 433 2.89 3 Fast Food Causes me to Increase the Growing Power of my 43 21 39 35 12 (28.67) (14.00) (26.00) (23.33) (8.00) 498 3.32 1 Son/Daughter Fast Food Provides me as Balanced Nutrition in Morning and Evening 21 (14.00) 18 (12.00) 43 (28.67) 39 (26.00) 29 (19.33) 413 2.75 5 Source: Primary Data. 461 Open Journal of Business and Management

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