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Solid-state laser refrigeration of nanodiamond quantum sensors

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Document pages: 21 pages

Abstract: The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy (NV$^-$) centre in diamond is aremarkable optical quantum sensor for a range of applications including,nanoscale thermometry, magnetometry, single photon generation, quantumcomputing, and communication. However, to date the performance of thesetechniques using NV$^-$ centres has been limited by the thermally-inducedspectral wandering of NV$^-$ centre photoluminescence due to detrimentalphotothermal heating. Here we demonstrate that solid-state laser refrigerationcan be used to enable rapid (ms) optical temperature control of nitrogenvacancy doped nanodiamond (NV$^-$:ND) quantum sensors in both atmospheric and textit{in vacuo} conditions. Nanodiamonds are attached to ceramicmicrocrystals including 10 ytterbium doped yttrium lithium fluoride(Yb:LiYF$ 4$) and sodium yttrium fluoride (Yb:NaYF$ 4$) by van der Waalsbonding. The fluoride crystals were cooled through the efficient emission ofupconverted infrared photons excited by a focused 1020 nm laser beam. Heattransfer to the ceramic microcrystals cooled the adjacent NV$^-$:NDs by 10 and27 K at atmospheric pressure and $ sim$10$^{-3}$ Torr, respectively. Thetemperature of the NV$^-$:NDs was measured using both Debye-Waller factor (DWF)thermometry and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR), which agree withthe temperature of the laser cooled ceramic microcrystal. Stabilization ofthermally-induced spectral wandering of the NV$^{-}$ zero-phonon-line (ZPL) isachieved by modulating the 1020 nm laser irradiance. The demonstrated coolingof NV$^-$:NDs using an optically cooled microcrystal opens up new possibilitiesfor rapid feedback-controlled cooling of a wide range of nanoscale quantummaterials.

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