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Opacity of Discrete Event Systems with Active Intruder

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Document pages: 6 pages

Abstract: Opacity is a security property formalizing the information leakage of asystem to an external observer, namely intruder. The conventional opacity thathas been studied in the Discrete Event System (DES) literature usually assumespassive intruders, who only observe the behavior of the system. However, inmany cybersecurity concerns, such as web service, active intruders, who arecapable of influencing the system s behavior beyond passive observations, needto be considered and defended against. We are therefore motivated to extend theopacity notions to handle active intruders. For this, we model the system as anon-deterministic finite-state transducer. It is assumed that the intruder hasa full knowledge of the system structure and is capable of interacting with thesystem by injecting different inputs and observing its responses. In thissetup, we first introduce reactive current-state opacity (RCSO) notioncharacterizing a property that the system does not leak its secret stateregardless of how the intruder manipulates the system behavior. We furthermoreextend this notion to language-based and initial-state reactive opacitynotions, and study the relationship among them. It turns out that all theproposed reactive opacity notions are equivalent to RCSO. We therefore focus onRCSO and study its verification problem. It is shown that the RCSO can beverified by constructing an observer automaton.

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