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The Role of UAV-IoT Networks in Future Wildfire Detection

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Document pages: 13 pages

Abstract: The challenge of wildfire management and detection is recently gainingincreased attention due to the increased severity and frequency of wildfiresworldwide. Popular fire detection techniques such as satellite imaging andremote camera-based sensing suffer from late detection and low reliabilitywhile early wildfire detection is a key to prevent massive fires. In thispaper, we propose a novel wildfire detection solution based on unmanned aerialvehicles assisted Internet of things (UAV-IoT) networks. The main objective isto (1) study the performance and reliability of the UAV-IoT networks forwildfire detection and (2) present a guideline to optimize the UAV-IoT networkto improve fire detection probability under limited budgets. We focus onoptimizing the IoT devices density and number of UAVs covering the forest areasuch that a lower bound of the wildfires detection probability is maximizedwithin a limited time and budget. At any time after the fire ignition, the IoTdevices within a limited distance from the fire can detect it. These IoTdevices can then report their measurements only when the UAV is nearby.Discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC) analysis is utilized to compute the firedetection probability at discrete time. Before declaring fire detection, avalidation state is designed to account for IoT devices practical limitationssuch as miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. Numerical results suggestthat given enough system budget, the UAV-IoT based fire detection can offer afaster and more reliable wildfire detection solution than the state of the artsatellite imaging techniques.

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