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Object Handovers a Review for Robotics

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Document pages: 20 pages

Abstract: This article surveys the literature on human-robot object handovers. Ahandover is a collaborative joint action where an agent, the giver, gives anobject to another agent, the receiver. The physical exchange starts when thereceiver first contacts the object held by the giver and ends when the giverfully releases the object to the receiver. However, important cognitive andphysical processes begin before the physical exchange, including initiatingimplicit agreement with respect to the location and timing of the exchange.From this perspective, we structure our review into the two main phasesdelimited by the aforementioned events: 1) a pre-handover phase, and 2) thephysical exchange. We focus our analysis on the two actors (giver and receiver)and report the state of the art of robotic givers (robot-to-human handovers)and the robotic receivers (human-to-robot handovers). We report a comprehensivelist of qualitative and quantitative metrics commonly used to assess theinteraction. While focusing our review on the cognitive level (e.g.,prediction, perception, motion planning, learning) and the physical level(e.g., motion, grasping, grip release) of the handover, we briefly discuss alsothe concepts of safety, social context, and ergonomics. We compare thebehaviours displayed during human-to-human handovers to the state of the art ofrobotic assistants, and identify the major areas of improvement for roboticassistants to reach performance comparable to human interactions. Finally, wepropose a minimal set of metrics that should be used in order to enable a faircomparison among the approaches.

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