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Optimizing Information Freshness in Two-Hop Status Update Systems under a Resource Constraint

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Document pages: 38 pages

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the age minimization problem for a two-hoprelay system, under a resource constraint on the average number of forwardingoperations at the relay. We first design an optimal policy by modelling theconsidered scheduling problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP)problem. Based on the observed multi-threshold structure of the optimal policy,we then devise a low-complexity double threshold relaying (DTR) policy withonly two thresholds, one for relay s AoI and the other one for the age gainbetween destination and relay. We derive approximate closed-form expressions ofthe average AoI at the destination, and the average number of forwardingoperations at the relay for the DTR policy, by modelling the tangled evolutionof age at relay and destination as a Markov chain (MC). Numerical resultsvalidate all the theoretical analysis, and show that the low-complexity DTRpolicy can achieve near optimal performance compared with the optimalCMDP-based policy. Moreover, the relay should always consider the threshold forits local age to maintain a low age at the destination. When the resourceconstraint is relatively tight, it further needs to consider the threshold onthe age gain to ensure that only those packets that can decrease destination sage dramatically will be forwarded.

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