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GNSS Spoofing Detection via Opportunistic IRIDIUM Signals

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Document pages: 11 pages

Abstract: In this paper, we study the privately-own IRIDIUM satellite constellation, toprovide a location service that is independent of the GNSS. In particular, weapply our findings to propose a new GNSS spoofing detection solution,exploiting unencrypted IRIDIUM Ring Alert (IRA) messages that are broadcast byIRIDIUM satellites. We firstly reverse-engineer many parameters of the IRIDIUMsatellite constellation, such as the satellites speed, packet interarrivaltimes, maximum satellite coverage, satellite pass duration, and the satellitebeam constellation, to name a few. Later, we adopt the aforementionedstatistics to create a detailed model of the satellite network. Subsequently,we propose a solution to detect unintended deviations of a target user from hispath, due to GNSS spoofing attacks. We show that our solution can be usedefficiently and effectively to verify the position estimated from standard GNSSsatellite constellation, and we provide constraints and parameters to fitseveral application scenarios. All the results reported in this paper, whileshowing the quality and viability of our proposal, are supported by real data.In particular, we have collected and analyzed hundreds of thousands of IRAmessages, thanks to a measurement campaign lasting several days. All thecollected data ($1000+$ hours) have been made available to the researchcommunity. Our solution is particularly suitable for unattended scenarios suchas deserts, rural areas, or open seas, where standard spoofing detectiontechniques resorting to crowd-sourcing cannot be used due to deploymentlimitations. Moreover, contrary to competing solutions, our approach does notresort to physical-layer information, dedicated hardware, or multiple receivingstations, while exploiting only a single receiving antenna andpublicly-available IRIDIUM transmissions. Finally, novel research directionsare also highlighted.

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