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Autofocusing technologies for whole slide imaging and automated microscopy

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Document pages: 30 pages

Abstract: Whole slide imaging (WSI) has moved digital pathology closer to diagnosticpractice in recent years. Due to the inherent tissue topography variability,accurate autofocusing remains a critical challenge for WSI and automatedmicroscopy systems. The traditional focus map surveying method is limited inits ability to acquire a high degree of focus points while still maintaininghigh throughput. Real-time approaches decouple image acquisition from focusing,thus allowing for rapid scanning while maintaining continuous accurate focus.This work reviews the traditional focus map approach and discusses the choiceof focus measure for focal plane determination. It also discusses variousreal-time autofocusing approaches including reflective-based triangulation,confocal pinhole detection, low-coherence interferometry, tilted sensorapproach, independent dual sensor scanning, beam splitter array, phasedetection, dual-LED illumination, and deep-learning approaches. The technicalconcepts, merits, and limitations of these methods are explained and comparedto those of a traditional WSI system. This review may provide new insights forthe development of high-throughput automated microscopy imaging systems thatcan be made broadly available and utilizable without loss of capacity.

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