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Scattering medium randomly packed pinhole cameras

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Document pages: 15 pages

Abstract: When light travels through scattering media, speckles (spatially randomdistribution of fluctuated intensities) are formed due to the interference oflight travelling along different optical paths, preventing the perception ofstructure, absolute location and dimension of a target within or on the otherside of the medium. Currently, the prevailing techniques such as wavefrontshaping, optical phase conjugation, scattering matrix measurement, and speckleautocorrelation imaging can only picture the target structure in the absence ofprior information. Here we show that a scattering medium can be conceptualizedas an assembly of randomly packed pinhole cameras, and the correspondingspeckle pattern is a superposition of randomly shifted pinhole images. Thisprovides a new perspective to bridge target, scattering medium, and specklepattern, allowing one to localize and profile a target quantitatively fromspeckle patterns perceived from the other side of the scattering medium, whichis impossible with all existing methods. The method also allows us to interpretsome phenomena of diffusive light that are otherwise challenging to understand.For example, why the morphological appearance of speckle patterns changes withthe target, why information is difficult to be extracted from thick scatteringmedia, and what determines the capability of seeing through scattering media.In summary, the concept, whilst in its infancy, opens a new door to unveilingscattering media and information extraction from scattering media in real time.

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