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A Hybrid DC Fault Primary Protection Algorithm for Multi-Terminal HVdc Systems

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Document pages: 8 pages

Abstract: Protection against dc faults is one of the main technical hurdles faced whenoperating converter-based HVdc systems. Protection becomes even morechallenging for multi-terminal dc (MTdc) systems with more than twoterminals converter stations. In this paper, a hybrid primary fault detectionalgorithm for MTdc systems is proposed to detect a broad range of failures.Sensor measurements, i.e., line currents and dc reactor voltages measured atlocal terminals, are first processed by a top-level context clusteringalgorithm. For each cluster, the best fault detector is selected among adetector pool according to a rule resulting from a learning algorithm. Thedetector pool consists of several existing detection algorithms, eachperforming differently across fault scenarios. The proposed hybrid primarydetection algorithm: i) detects all major fault types including pole-to-pole(P2P), pole-to-ground (P2G), and external dc fault; ii) provides a widedetection region covering faults with various fault locations and impedances;iii) is more robust to noisy sensor measurements compared to the existingmethods. Performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are evaluatedand verified based on time-domain simulations in the PSCAD EMTDC softwareenvironment. The results confirm satisfactory operation, accuracy, anddetection speed of the proposed algorithm under various fault scenarios.

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