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Electricity prices and tariffs to keep everyone happy a framework for compatible fixed and nodal structures to increase efficiency

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Document pages: 22 pages

Abstract: Some consumers, such as householders, are unwilling to face volatileelectricity prices, and perceive as unfair price differentiations based onlocation. For these reasons, nodal prices in distribution networks are rarelyemployed. However, the increasing availability of renewable resources indistribution grids, and emerging price-elastic behaviour, pave the way for theeffective introduction of marginal nodal pricing schemes in distributionnetworks. The aim of the proposed framework is to show how traditionalnon-flexible consumers can coexist with flexible users in a local distributionarea, where the latter pay nodal prices whereas the former are charged a fixedprice, which is derived by the underlying nodal prices. In addition, itdetermines how the distribution system operator should manage the local grid byoptimally determining the lines to be expanded, and the collected networktariff levied on network users, while accounting for both congestion rent andinvestment costs. The proposed framework is formulated as a non-linear integerbilevel model, which is then recast as an equivalent single optimizationproblem, by using integer algebra and complementarity relations. The powerflows in the distribution area are modelled by resorting to a second-order conerelaxation, whose solution is exact for radial networks under mild assumptions.The final model results in a mixed-integer quadratically constrained program,which can be solved with off-the-shelf solvers. Numerical test cases based on a5-bus and a 33-bus networks are reported to show the effectiveness of theproposed method.

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