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Smart Boilers: Grid Support Services from Non-Critical Loads

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Document pages: 23 pages

Abstract: The aimof this paper is to present the concept of a simple and cheap upgrade forelectric water boilers, allowing them to provide power quality services to thedistribution grid. The upgrade requires only minimum additional hardware and itis easily installable. “Smart Boilers”, as the upgraded boilers are named,perform precise active and reactive power control, but most significantlymitigate line current harmonics. Αctive and reactive power control isimplemented by appropriate regulation of the modulation sinewave amplitude andphase, respectively. This type of control is easily customizable in order to accommodatea variety of power quality targets, depending on the required level of servicesand available grid monitoring equipment. The method used for line currentharmonic compensation is based on the injection of mirror harmonics created atthe modulation stage of the converter. It is indifferent of harmonic source: itis equally successful at mitigating harmonics caused by the power electronicconverter of the Smart Boiler, other sources of current harmonics or loads. Theachieved grid services are clearly beyond the “on off” operation of electricboilers, currently implemented by Demand Side Management (DSM) in order toshift load away from peak hours. It has been demonstrated through simulations,that Smart Boilers can assist voltage regulation at terminal buses, compensatereactive power and suppress harmonic currents at lines.

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