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Alignment of Quasar Polarizations on Large Scales Explained by Warped Cosmic Strings. PART II: The Second Order Contribution

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Document pages: 18 pages

Abstract: We find an azimuthal-angle dependent approximate wave like solution to second order on a warped five-dimensional manifold with a self-gravitating U(1) scalar gauge field (cosmic string) on the brane using the multiple-scale method. The spectrum of the several orders of approximation show maxima of the energy distribution dependent on the azimuthal-angle and the winding numbers n of the subsequent orders of scalar field. This breakup of the quantized flux quanta does not lead to instability of the asymptotic wavelike solution, due to the suppression of the n-dependency in the energy mo-mentum tensor components by the warp factor. This effect is triggered by the contribution of the five dimensional Weyl tensor on the brane. This con-tribution can be understood as dark energy and can trigger the self-acceleration of the universe without the need of a cosmological constant. There is a striking relation between the symmetry breaking of the Higgs field described by the winding number and the SO(2) breaking of the axially symmetric configuration into a discrete subgroup of rotations about 180°. The discrete sequence of non-axially symmetric deviations, cancelled by the emission of gravitational waves in order to restore the SO(2) symmetry, triggers the pressure Tzz for discrete values of the azimuthal-angle. There can be a possible relation between the recently discovered angle-preferences of polarization axes of quasars on large scales and our theoretical predicted angle-dependency and can be an evidence for the existence of cosmic strings. The discovery of the increase of polarization rate in smaller subgroups of the several large-quasar groups (LQGs), the red shift dependency and the relative orientation of the spin axes with respect to the major axes of their host LQGs, point at a fractional azimuthal structure, were also found in our cosmic string model. This peculiar discontinuous large scale structure, i.e., polarizations directions of multiples of, for example, π 2 orπ 4, can be explained by the spectrum of azimuthal-angle dependent wavelike modes without the need of conventional density perturbations in standard 4D cosmological models. Carefully com-parison of the spectrum of extremal values of the first and second order φ-dependency and the distribution of the alignment of the quasar polarizations is necessary. This can be accomplished when more observational data become available.

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