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Factorization of Cyclotomic Polynomials with Quadratic Radicals in the Coefficients

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Document pages: 35 pages

Abstract: In this article we continue the consideration of geometrical constructions of regular n-gons for odd n by rhombic bicompasses and ruler used in [1] for the construction of the regular heptagon (n=7). We discuss the possible factorization of the cyclotomic polynomial in polynomial factors which contain not higher than quadratic radicals in the coefficients whereas usually the factorization of the cyclotomic polynomials is considered in products of irreducible factors with integer coefficients. In considering the regular heptagon we find a modified variant of its construction by rhombic bicompasses and ruler. In detail, supported by figures, we investigate the case of the regular tridecagon (n=13) which in addition to n=7 is the only candidate with low n (the next to this is n=769 ) for which such a construction by rhombic bicompasses and ruler seems to be possible. Besides the coordinate origin we find here two points to fix for the possible application of two bicompasses (or even four with the addition of the complex conjugate points to be fixed). With only one bicompass one has in addition the problem of the trisection of an angle which can be solved by a neusis construction that, however, is not in the spirit of constructions by compass and ruler and is difficult to realize during the action of bicompasses. As discussed it seems that to finish the construction by bicompasses the correlated action of two rhombic bicompasses must be applied in this case which avoids the disadvantages of the neusis construction. Single rhombic bicompasses allow to draw at once two circles around two fixed points in such correlated way that the position of one of the rotating points on one circle determines the positions of all the other points on the second circle in unique way. The known case n=17 embedded in our method is discussed in detail.

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