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Anatomical Risk Factors for Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Knee Joint Assessment

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Document pages: 13 pages

Abstract: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most frequently encountered traumatic ligamentous lesions of the knee. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors are linked to this lesion. Anatomical factors increase the anterior translation of the knee and thus promote the stretching and rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Objectives: To determine the anatomical risk factors favouring ACL rupture by comparing morphometric parameters of patients with knee ACL rupture to patients without ACL rupture, as well as the intercondylar notch index and the tibial slopes of the two groups and describing the ruptured ACLs and associated signs. Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control descriptive analytical study in imaging centres of the General Henri Mondor of Aurillac Hospital Centre in France (CHM) and the Jordan Medical Centre of Yaoundé in Cameroon (CMJ). MRI exam protocols included T1 SE, T2 SE, proton density and Fat Sat sequences, with slices in all three planes. Morphometry knee variables measured in our study were: intercondylar notch index and the tibial slopes. These measurements were obtained from images stored in DICOM format and post processing software OsiriX MD® for CMJ patients and Explore® for CHM patients. Results: The study included 92 individuals, 38 in the case group and 54 in the control group. The mean age was 36.6 years for both groups; 35.5 years for the cases and 37.4 years for the controls. The sex ratio was 1.87 men for 1 woman in both groups; 2.16 men for 1 woman for the case group. 53 of ACL ruptures are partial, with the predominant direct sign being morphologic and signal abnormalities of the ACL. The most significant indirect sign of ACL rupture was mirror-image bone contusion that was observed in 47.3 of cases. In the case group, the mean lateral tibial slope was 4.003°, whereas it was 2.92° in the control group. The comparison of means was estimated at approximately 0.039 (p Conclusion: The increase in the lateral tibial slope was a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in our study population. Intercondylar notch index and medial tibial slope did not show any statistical significant difference.

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