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An Analogy between the Properties of “Dark Energy” and Physical Vacuum Consisting of Quantum Harmonic Oscillators Characterized by Zero-Point Energy

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Document pages: 15 pages

Abstract: In quantum field theory, the physical vacuum, free from magnetic and electric fields (without regard to gravitational energy), is defined not as an empty space but as the ground state of the field consisting of quantum harmonic oscillators (QHOs) characterized by zero-point energy. The aim of this work is to show that such physical vacuum may possess the properties similar to the properties of dark energy: the positive density, the negative pressure, and the possibility of so-called accelerated expansion. In the model discussed, the mass of QHOs determines the positive density of dark energy. The observed electric polarization of physical vacuum in an electric field means the existence of electric dipole moment of QHO, which, in turn, suggests the existence inside the QHO of a repulsive force between unlike charges compensating the attractive Coulomb force between the charges. The existence of such repulsive force may be treated as the existence of omniradial tensions inside every QHO. In terms of hydrodynamics, it means that the vacuum with this property may be regarded as a medium with negative pressure. The electric dipole-dipole interaction of QHOs under some condition may result in the expansion of physical vacuum consisting of QHOs. It is shown also that the physical vacuum consisting of QHOs is a luminiferous medium, and based on this concept the conditions are discussed for the emergence of invisiblity of any objects (in particular, dark matter). The existence of luminiferous medium does not contradict the second postulate of special relativity (the principle of constancy of the velocity of light in inertial systems), if to take into account the interaction of photons with QHOs and with virtual photons (the virtual particles pairs) created by quantum entities that constitute the inertial systems.

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