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Valid Geometric Solutions for Indentations with Algebraic Calculations

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Document pages: 15 pages

Abstract: This paper analyzes the force vs depth loading curves of conical, pyramidal, wedged and for spherical indentations on a strict mathematical basis by explicit use of the indenter geometries rather than on still world-wide used iterated “contact depths” with elastic theory and violation of the energy law. The now correctly analyzed loading curves provide as yet undetectable phase-transition. For the spherical indentations, this includes an obvious correction for the varying depth radius ratio, which had previously been disregarded. Only algebraic formulas are now used for the calculation of material’s properties without data-fittings, or simplifications, or false simulations. Penetration resistance differences of materials’ polymorphs provide precise intersection values as kink unsteadiness by equalization of linear regression lines from mathematically linearized loading curves. These intersections indicate phase transition onset values for depth and force. The precise and correct determination of phase-transition onsets allows for energy and phase-transition energy calculations. The unprecedented algebraic equations are most simply and mathematically reproducibly deduced. There are no restrictions for elastic and or plastic behavior and no use of different formulas for different force ranges. The novel indentation formulas reveal unprecedented access to the onset, energy and transition energy of phase-transitions. This is now also achieved for spherical indentations. Their formula as deduced for plotting is reformulated for integrations. The distinction of applied work (Wapplied) and indentation work (Windent) allows now for comparing spherical with pyramidal indentation phase-transitions. Only low energy phase-transitions from pyramidal indentation may be missed in spherical indentations. The rather low penetration depths of sphere calottes calculate very close for cap and flat area values. This allows for the calculation of the indentation phase-transition onset pressure and thus the successful comparison with hydrostatic anvil pressurizing results. This is very helpful for their interpretations, as low energy phase-transitions are often missed under the anvil, and it further strengthens the unparalleled ease of the indentation techniques. Exemplification is reported for pyramidal, spherical, and hydrostatic anvil stressing by the numerical analysis of published germanium data. The previous widely accepted historical indentation theories and standards are challenged. Falsely simulated and even published so-called “experimental” indentation data from the literature can most easily be checked. They are mathematically unsound and their correction is urgently necessary for scientific reasons and daily safety with stressed materials. The motivation for this paper is the challenge of worldwide incorrect ISO 14577 standards for false and incomplete characterization of materials. The minimization of catastrophic failures e.g. in aviation requires the strengthening and the advancements of the mathematical truth by using our closed formulas that are based on undeniable geometric and algebraic calculation rules.

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