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Dark Matter Creation and Anti-Gravity Acceleration of the Expanding Universe

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Document pages: 22 pages

Abstract: Dark matter is identified as negative relative energy between quarks in proton and is generated in cold hydrogen gas with pressure gradient in gravitational field. Positive relative energy PRE can be generated between quarks in protons in cold hydrogen gas in outskirts of the universe. The mechanisms for such creation of dark matter and PRE are reviewed and updated in greater detail and clearer manner. The so-generated dark matter in a galaxy can account for the galaxy’s rotation curve. Star formation in this galaxy uses up the hydrogen atoms and thereby reduces its dark matter content. Dark matter created in intergalactic hydrogen gas can form filaments. In a hypothetical model of the universe, a hydrogen atom with a small amount of negative relative energy or dark matter at the outskirts of this universe can via collisions with other atoms turn into one with a small positive relative energy PRE. Once such a sign change takes place, gravitational attraction switches to anti-gravity repulsion unopposed by any pressure gradient. This leads to a “run away” hydrogen atom moving away from the mass center of the universe and provides a basic mechanism for the accelerating expansion of the universe. This theoretical expansion and the measured redshift data are both compatible with the conception of an acceleratingly expanding universe and complement each other. But they cannot verify each other directly because the present model has been constructed for purposes different from those of the measurements. But it can be shown that both approaches do support each other qualitatively under certain circumstances for small velocities. Dark matter and PRE in the present model are not foreign objects like WIMPs and dark energy-cosmological constant but can only be created in cold hydrogen gas in gravitational field. To achieve this, infrequent collisions among the hydrogen atoms must take place. Dark matter was created first and can eventually later evolve into PRE in the outskirts of the universe and in the intergalactic void. Dark matter and PRE will disappear if the hydrogen atom carrying them becomes ionized as in stars.

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