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Reliability and Validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale for Adolescents in Lao PDR

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Document pages: 15 pages

Abstract: This study aimed to develop a Laotian adolescent version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), determine its reliability and validity, and examine its factorial properties. The study targeted 7554 students in lower secondary schools and teacher training colleges in Lao PDR. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed and collected from 2012 to 2014. Exploratory factor analysis was performed in three age groups using the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimation with robust maximum likelihood methods. The factor structure for each age group was the same; therefore, data from the full sample were analyzed further. The model was then tested by confirmatory factor analysis. A 2-factor model was determined as a common model among the age groups by using paralleled analysis. We determined a best-fitting structure comprising two factors: “Negative affect” and “Positive affect”. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81. “Effort” items loaded on the “Somatic and retarded activity” factor in the original model but loaded on the “Positive affect” factor in the adolescent model. “Depressed affect,” “Somatic and retarded activity,” and “Interpersonal” items were combined into the “Negative affect” factor in the adolescent model.

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