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Exploring the related factors of education quality through potential variable spatial autoregressive model: a rural case study

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Document pages: 10 pages

Abstract: The principle of sustainable development education (ESD) is not to let any children fall behind. Therefore, the fourth sustainable development goal (SDG) of the United Nations (UN) emphasizes the inclusiveness and equity of education, focusing on eliminating regional differences. This study explores the factors related to education quality by modeling the rural area of sumena County, East Java, Indonesia. At present, only a few types of research involve spatial data, potential variables, and the test of its spillover effect. The modeling in this paper is spatial autoregressive models (SAR LVS) with potential variables. The potential variables were estimated by weighted least squares (WLS) and the spatial correlation was tested by Lagrange multiplier (LM). The parameters of the SAR-LVs were estimated using two-stage least square (2SLS). The results show that the quality of education is directly influenced by the infrastructure of the schools but not by the socioeconomic conditions of the local communities. The autoregressive spatial coefficient has a significant but negative effect, which shows a negative spillover from districts with a lower quality of education to the ones with a high quality of education. This is due to the students’ competition to get registered for a favorite or good quality school in a particular district, which stimulates the migration of students from its neighboring districts. This reveals the inequality of school quality, since not all students can get access to schools with good quality. Through this study, some recommendations are given as a contribution to achieving the fourth SDG in Indonesia.

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