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Prevalence and determinants of diarrhea in children under five years of age in Benna tsemay District, southern Omo District, southern Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study in the context of herdsmen and farmers and herdsmen

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Document pages: 11 pages

Abstract: Background diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five in the world, killing about 1.5 million people every year. In low-income countries, children under the age of three have diarrhea on average three times a year. Diarrhoeal disease is one of the common causes of death among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. In Benna tsemay District, herdsmen s community life lacks clean water, sanitation facilities and sanitation problems, which increases the risk of diarrhea among children. Objective to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of diarrhea among children under five years old in Benna tsemay District, Omo District, southern Ethiopia. method. A community-based cross-sectional study of 722 children under the age of five was conductedandomly from eight pastoralists and two agropastoralist kebels. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Logic regression was performed to identify the association between diarrheal disease and independent variables. Adjusted odds ratio with 95 confidence intervals (CIs) was used to judge the presence of association. Results. The two-week period prevalence of childhood diarrheal disease in the study was 23.5 (95 CI: 20.4 –26.6 ). Diarrheal illness was associated with nonavailability of latrine (AOR: 2.77, 95 CI: 1.66–4.63), faeces seen around the pit hole or floor of latrine (AOR: 2.92, 95 CI: 1.38–6.19), improper kitchen waste disposal (AOR: 2.31, 95 CI: 1.26–4. 24), unprotected drinking water source (AOR: 1.81, 95 CI: 1.14–2.88), mother’s or caretaker’s diarrhea history in the last two weeks (AOR: 6.74, 95 CI: 2.51–18.07), materials used for feeding the child (cup and spoon) (AOR: 0.60, 95 CI: 0.36–0.97), and being unvaccinated for “rotavirus” (AOR: 2.87, 95 CI: 1.86–4.44). Conclusion. Nearly one-fourth of children had diarrheal illness in the preceding two weeks. Water, sanitation and hygiene-related factors, child feeding practice, and children’s vaccination status for rotavirus were the determinants of the occurrence of diarrhea among under-five children. The health office should conduct sustainable health education programs that emphasize on risk of open defecation, waste disposal mechanisms, and child feeding practices and also should strengthen rotavirus vaccination activities. The district administration and partners’ needed to improve water sources.

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