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Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of extracts from Vitex negundo and Vitex negundo leaves

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Abstract: Oxidative stress and damage of antioxidant system are related to the pathophysiology of many disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties of Vitex negundo and fresh leaves of Vitex negundo for the management and treatment of various diseases were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water) were screened to determine the presence of phytochemicals, and their free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using their inhibitory effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picric acid hydrazide (DPPH) free radicals. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver of albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were also used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extract. These animals received 250 of the treatment   mg kg body weight extractix consecutive days before a single dose (2.5 mL kg body weight) of CCl4. Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different () from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease () in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased () relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants.

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