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Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Known and Emerging Risk Factors

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Document pages: 21 pages

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver cancer with a high mortality rate. While chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections represent the leading risk factors worldwide, the spreading of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) justifies the increasing attention on their oncogenic mechanisms. This review discusses about the main pathogenic mechanisms implicated in occurrence of HCC in presence of viral and metabolic diseases. Additionally, it points to the importance of clinical surveillance for those patients considered at risk of HCC and highlights the strategical role of serum markers, such as alfa-fetoprotein (αFP) and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist II (PIVKA-II), which, in association to a strictly instrumental follow-up, contribute to the early detection of hepatic nodules with a better prognosis for affected patients.

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