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Spatial Distribution and Modeling of Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection in Nigeria

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Document pages: 26 pages

Abstract: Background and Objective: Soil transmitted helminthes (STH) infection affects more than two billion people worldwide with Nigeria having the highest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the spatial and potential distribution of STHs in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Secondary data were assessed from 98 journals and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were extracted from them. The spatial distribution of the parasites was performed using DIVA-GIS software. The climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) and elevation variable (altitude) were used in the modeling of the parasites using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling tool. Results: The average prevalence of A. lumbricoides, Hookworms and T. trichiura in Nigeria is 25.17 , 16.86 and 9.74 respectively. Delta State (62.08 ) had the highest infection of A. lumbricoides followed by Oyo (55.50 ) and Kano (44.40 ) while 14 states had prevalence of below 20.0 . Akwa Ibom and Kano States had the highest average prevalence of 55.80 for hookworm infections. Delta, Oyo and Benue States had prevalence of 38.08 , 35.80 , and 35.40 respectively while 22 states had prevalence of hookworm below 20.0 . T. trichiura had the least average prevalence among the three STHs. Akwa Ibom State had the highest prevalence for this parasite with 40.40 followed by Lagos, Delta and Kwara States with prevalence values of 24.85 , 24.05 and 23.37 respectively. Other states in the Federation had prevalence values of less than 12 with Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja and Borno States having the least prevalence of 0.80 and 0.90 respectively. The potential distribution that reveals than southern Nigeria has been at high risk of infections. Precipitations of the wettest month, altitude, precipitation of the warmest quarter are the major environmental variables that affect the distribution of STH. Conclusion: Nigeria is characterized by varying prevalence of STHs. All states in Nigeria are endemic for STHs. Southern Nigeria was observed to have higher prevalence of STHs due to the high level of precipitation and low altitude of these regions. “The higher the altitude, the lower the prevalence of STH infections. The higher the temperature and precipitation, the higher the prevalence of STH infections.

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