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Socio demographic factors affecting children born to women who have experienced domestic violence and women who have not experienced domestic violence in Bangladesh

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https://www.eduzhai.net American Journal of Sociological Research 2012, 2(5): 113-119 DOI: 10.5923/j.sociology.20120205.04 Affecting Socio-Demographic Factors on Children Ever Born for Women who have Experienced Domestic Violence and Women who have not Experienced Domestic Violence in Bangladesh Md. Rafiqul Islam*, Md. Rabiul Islam, Md. Rashed Alam, Md. Mosharaf Hossain Department of Population Science & HRD University of Rajshahi Rajshahi, 6205, Bangladesh Abstract Th is study assesses the contribution of socio-economic and demographic variables on children ever born (CEB) for wo men who have experienced do mestic vio lence and wo men who have not experienced do mestic v iolence by applying mu ltip le classification analysis (MCA). The shrinkage coefficient ( λ ) is employed for goodness of fit of the model. For this, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2007 data is used in this study. This study contains 10,146 currently married wo men out of 10,996 ever-married wo men. Findings reveal that respondent’s education, age at marriage and wealth index has a negative significant effect on CEB and these are the first, second and third strongest influential factors for explaining the variab ility of CEB included all other variables for both wo men who have experienced domestic vio lence and wo men who have not experienced domestic violence. In this paper, it is recommended that respondent’s age at marriage and educational qualification should be raised substantially for abating fertility and domestic vio lence against women in Ban g lad es h . Keywords Do mestic and Non-Do mestic Vio lence, Ch ildren Ever Bo rn (CEB), Socio-demographic Factors, Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA), Cross- validity predict ion power (CVPP), Shrin kage Coefficient and Bangladesh 1. Introduction Over the pas t decades , there have been growing recognition of the scope of domestic v iolence globally and t he imp licat ions o f s uch v io lence fo r the health and well-b ein g o f wo men , ch ild ren and families [1]. Th e defin ition o f do mestic vio lence defined by World Health Org an izat ion (W HO) extends b eyond p hys ical acts of violence toward one’s partner to include sexual coercion, physical threats, psychological abuse and controlling actions, such as, physical isolation or restricting access to health care o r f in an cial res o u rces [2]. Ev id en ce receiv ed fro m developing countries suggests that 10% to 60% of married wo men of reproductive age group having ever experienced some fo rm of do mestic v io lence[3]. It was recorded the h igh est levels co min g fro m So uth As ia[4]. Do mest ic violence affects a range of health outcomes, both fo r the wo men who experience it and fo r their ch ildren [5]. For wo men, the consequences associated with domestic violence include physical inju ry, ch ronic pain and gastrointestinal * Corresponding author: rafique_pops@yahoo.com (Md. Rafiqul Islam) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved symptoms[1] and adverse mental health outcomes[6]. Negative reproductive health outcomes linked to v iolence include nonuse of contraception or condoms and unintended pregnancy[7]. For children, evidence shows an association between domestic violence and low b irth weight and prematurity baby[8] and elevated risks of prenatal and early childhood mortality[9]. Do mestic vio lence is not a rare occasion in Bangladesh. The exact prevalence in do mestic violence is difficult to control due to cultural understanding and sensitivity of the issues existing in the society. As domestic violence enclosed a range of issues, the magnitudes of the problem were observed in various forms and facts[10]. When children ever born (CEB) influences population growth, which has consequences towards force on resources, service situations, health facilities and saving investment, in turn, such penalty have great bearing on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics that affect fertility behavior. Ho wever, the factors that are perceived to influence fertility are highly interrelated among themselves; the conceptualizat ion of the determinants of fertility involves a mult itude of factors that vary greatly in intensity and direction of force they exert on fertility[11]. In our society, the effects of fertility and domestic vio lence are obviously vast, but it is impossible to measure. Ou r entire nation suffers this increasing problem 114 M d. Rafiqul Islam et al.: Affecting Socio-Demographic Factors on Children Ever Born for Women Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence and Women Who Have Not Experienced Domestic Violence in Bangladesh every day. In our country, most of the wo men have experienced domestic violence: physical, mental and sexual due to lack of their educational knowledge, their partner’s illiteracy, their early marriage, increasing nu mber of children and their lower resources etc. In present time, the study of domestic violence against wo men and its effect on fert ility particularly in Bangladesh have a great importance. Actually, in this paper, women are classified into two groups such as i) domestically vio lated wo men, i. e., wo men who have experienced domestic vio lence and ii) non-domestically violated wo men, i.e., wo men who have not experienced domestic violence. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the effects of some socio-economic and demographic variables on CEB for wo men who have experienced do mestic v iolence and women who have not experienced domestic violence emp loying MCA. Moreover, shrinkage coefficient is emp loyed in this paper to test the adequacy of the model. 2. Sources of Data The data for this study is extracted fro m Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2007[12]. This study contains 10,146 currently married wo men out of 10,996 ever-married wo men in which 4214 are wo men who have experienced domestic vio lence and 5932 are wo men who have not experienced domestic violence. 3. Methodology 3.1. Mul ti ple Cl assification Analysis (MCA) bj is the effect due to j th category of the factor B, wh ich is equal to the difference between y and the mean of its category of factor B. ck is the effect due to the k th category of the factor C, which is equal to the difference between y and the mean of its category of factor C. eijk is the error term related with Yijk score of the in d iv id u als . The coefficients, which are estimated by solving the normal equation systems, are called the adjusted or net effect of the predictors. These effects measure those of the predictor alone after taking into account the effects of all other predictors. If there is no interrelation among the predictors, the adjusted and unadjusted effects of the predictors will be same. The unadjusted, eta-square (η2) coefficient is a correlation ratio, which explains how well the predictor variable explains the variation in the dependent variables and is usually estimated by solving the normal equations with only one predictor. This unadjusted coefficient indicates the proportion of variance explained by a single predictor alone. Similarly, the beta-square (β2) coefficient indicates the proportion of variation explained by the other predictor variables. The beta coefficient is compared to the partial correlation coefficient in multip le regressions. It is noted that for women who have experienced domestic violence and women who have not experienced domestic violence, CEB are taken to be the dependent variable and the socio-economic and demographic variab les named as: respondent’s age, age at first marriage, religion, respondent’s occupation, wealth index, respondent’s education and type of place of residence are treated as explanatory variab les. The mult iple classification analysis (MCA) developed by Yates in 1934 is employed here[13]. It was later expanded and modified by Anderson and Bancraft in 1952[14]. The computerized MCA program was made by a group of researchers at the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan in 1963. Since then, the MCA program has been widely used in social science research. MCA requires one dependent variable and two or more independent variables. The dependent variable is continuous but all the independent variables must be categorical. M CA can equally handle the nominal and ordinal variables and can also deal with linear and non-linear relationships of predictor variables with dependent variable. Mathemat ically, the model can be expressed by the following equation: Yijk = y + ai + bj + ck + - - - - - - - + eijk . Where, Yijk is the value or score of an individual who falls in the i th category of the factor A, j th category of the factor B and k th category of the factor C. y is the grand mean of Y. ai is the effect due to the i th category of the factor A, which is equal to the difference between y and the mean of its category of factor A. 3.2. Model Accuracy Test In this paper, to assess the accuracy and reliability of model, the CVPP, ρ 2 cv , is applied. The mathe matica l formula for CVPP is addressed by ρ 2 cv =1 − (n −1)(n − 2)(n + 1) (1 − R 2 ) . n(n − k −1)(n − k − 2) In which, n is the number of cases, k is the number of regressors in the fitted model and the cross-validated R is the correlation between observed and predicted values of the predicated variable[15]. The shrinkage coefficient ( λ ) of the model is the p o s itiv e value of ( ρ 2 cv - R2); where ρ 2 cv is CVPP and R2 is the coefficient of determination of the model. The stability of R2 of the model is 1-shrin kage. The shrinkage coefficient ( λ ) determines the adequacy of the model. The estimated CVPP related to their R2 and informat ion on model fittings are presented in Table 5. 3.3. F-test To find out the measure of overall significance of the fitted model as well as the significance of R2, the F-test is emp loyed in this study[16] that is presented in Table 5. American Journal of Sociological Research 2012, 2(5): 113-119 115 4. Results and Discussion 4.1. For Women Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence Different types of socio-economic and demographic factors that may be influence the CEB for wo men who have experienced do mestic violence. To investigate the differential patterns of mean number of CEB fo r wo men who have experienced domestic violence, the well-known M CA is used. It is revealed from the results that the proportion of variance explained by MCA for wo men who have experienced do mestic violence is R2 = 0.179. Tab le 1 shows the mean nu mber of CEB both unadjusted and adjusted by various types of socio-economic and demographic characteristics for domestic violence with the values of η 2 and β 2 produced from M CA. Also the Table 2 produce the results of zero order correlation coefficients of CEB for wo men who have experienced domestic violence with various socio-economic and demographic variables. Fro m the Table 2, it is revealed that respondent’s education has a negative significant contribution on CEB. The correlat ion coefficient is found to be r = -0.403. Fro m the selected variables respondent’s education is the first strongest influential factor fo r exp laining the variation on CEB among all other selected variables. The result depicted that educational qualification has strong association (η 2 = 0.404) with mean nu mber of CEB. It is also presented that the effects of educational level re main low after adjusting for the effect of all other variables in the model ( β 2 = 0.398). The mean nu mber of CEB was 3.85 for illiterate wo men and 1.95 for h ighly educated wo men (Tab le 1). Fro m the result, it is important to note that highly educated women marry later and found to have lower fertility. It is noticed fro m the Table 2, age at marriage has a significant effect on CEB and has a negative association (r = -0.201). Fro m the Table 1, it is observed that the effect of age at marriage has been found to be the second strongest influential factor for exp lain ing the variation on CEB as well as the proportion of variance exp lained by age at marriage was η 2 = 0.202 and β 2 = 0.105 respectively. It is also observed that respondent’s who were marry at earlier 18 years of age had on average 2.98 ch ildren and respondent’s who were marry within 18 years and above had on average 2.44 children respectively. Respondent’s wealth index is negative (r = -0.139) significantly effects on CEB (Table 2). It is noticed that the Table 1, respondent’s wealth inde x was found to be the third strongest influential factor for exp lain ing variab ility of CEB among the included variables. The proportion of variance explained by wealth index was η 2 = 0.140 and β 2 = 0.044 respectively. The Table 1 also indicated that respondent’s who were poor, middle class and rich had on average 2.79, 2.82 and 2.97 children respectively. Fro m the result, it is important to note that rich respondents have no food problems, shelter problems, health problems and economical problems etc. than that of the poor respondents. As a result, rich respondent’s has been found to have higher fertility. Table 1. The Mean Number of CEB for Women Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence with Selected Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables by Using MCA Explanatory Variables Age group: 15-24 25-34 35+ Age at First Marriage: <18 18+ Religion: Muslim Non-muslim Respondent ’s Occupat ion: Unemployed Manual Non-manual Wealth Index: Poor Middle Rich Respondent ’s Educat ion: No Education Primary Secondary+ Type of Place of Residence: Urban Rural Predicted Mean Unadjusted Adjust ed 2.88 2.85 2.85 2.86 2.90 2.92 3.07 2.98 2.04 2.44 2.91 2.91 2.54 2.61 2.86 2.93 2.93 2.75 2.70 2.97 3.19 2.79 2.97 2.82 2.57 2.97 3.86 3.85 3.01 3.00 1.93 1.95 2.69 2.85 2.99 2.89 Grand Mean = 2.88, Mult iple R2 = 0.179 Correlation Ratio η 2 (Unadjusted) β 2 (Adjusted) 0.010 0.017 0.202 0.055 0.105 0.044 0.023 0.042 0.140 0.044 0.404 0.071 0.398 0.011 116 M d. Rafiqul Islam et al.: Affecting Socio-Demographic Factors on Children Ever Born for Women Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence and Women Who Have Not Experienced Domestic Violence in Bangladesh Table 2. Zero Order Correlation Coefficients among the Selected Variables of CEB for Women Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence Selected Age group Age at Religion Respondent’s Wealth Resp on dent ’s place of CEB variable (X1) marriage (X2) (X3) occupation (X4) index (X5) education (X6) residence (X7) (X8) AG (X1) AM (X2) R (X3) RO (X4) WI (X5) RE (X6) P R (X7) 1.000 0.037* 1.000 0.039* 0.092** 1.000 0.002 -0.002 0.027 1.000 0.043** 0.229** 0.001 -0.099** 1.000 0.015 0.262** 0.003 -0.091** 0.397** 1.000 -0.052** -0.160** 0.025 -0.021 -0.415** -0.161** 1.000 0.005 -0.201** -0.055** 0.003 -0.139** -0.403** 0.071** CEB (X8) 1.000 Note: ** Significant at the 0.01 level, * Significant at the 0.05 level Type of place of residence has a significant impact on CEB. The correlation coefficient is found to be r =0.071 (Table 2). It is also found from the Table 1, the effect of type of place of residence was the fourth strongest influential factors on CEB as well as the proportion of variance explained by type of place of residence was η 2 = 0.071 and β 2 = 0.011 respectively. The mean numbers of CEB (adjusted) for urban and rural areas are 2.85 and 2.89 children respectively. Th is may be due to fact that women in urban areas have late marriage, higher educational facilities and employ ment opportunities in the modern sector. Fro m the Table 2, it is observed that religion of the respondent’s has a negative (r =-0.055) significant contribution on CEB. It is also found that respondent’s occupation and age of the respondents has significant impact on CEB. Their association with CEB are found to be r = 0.003 and r = 0.005 respectively. The Table 1 shows the effect of religion, respondent’s occupation and respondent’s age group are the fifth, sixth and seventh strongest influential factors for explaining the proportion of variability of CEB among the selected variables respectively. Religion becomes less important effect ( η 2 = 0.055 and β 2 = 0.044) on CEB when other selected variables were controlled. It is also noticed that Muslim co mmunity has higher fertility than Non-Muslim co mmun ity. The mean CEB for Muslim and Non-Muslim co mmun ity were 2.91 and 2.61 children respectively. Respondent’s occupation also had the low effect on CEB ( η 2 = 0.023 and β 2 = 0.042). Results show that mean nu mber of CEB for unemp loyed, manual and non-manual respondents are 2.93, 2.75 and 2.97 children respectively. Respondent’s age group is another less important effect ( η 2 = 0.010 and β 2 = 0.017) on CEB. Fro m the results, it is observed that respondent’s who belong to the age group 15-24, 25-34 and 35+ years had on average 2.85, 2.86 and 2.92 children respectively. The mean number of CEB by using MCA and the zero order correlation coefficients among the selected variables of CEB for wo men who have experienced domestic vio lence are g iven below: 4.2. For Women Who Have Not Experienced Domestic Violence For wo men who have not experienced do mestic violence, various types of socio-economic and demographic factors that may influence the CEB. The M CA is used to examine the differential patterns of mean number of CEB for wo men who have not experienced do mestic vio lence. The results show that the proportion of variance exp lained by MCA for wo men who have not experienced do mestic violence is R2 = 0.226. Table 3 shows the mean number of CEB both unadjusted and adjusted by different socio-economic and demographic characteristics with the values of η 2 and β 2 produced from MCA. The zero order correlation coefficients of CEB with various socio-economic and demographic for wo men who have not experienced domestic violence are presented in the Table 4. For wo men who have not experienced do mestic violence, Table 4 depicted that wo men education has a negative significant impact on CEB. The correlation coefficient of wo men education on CEB is found to be r = -0.450. Table 3 revealed that the effect of the respondent’s education is the first strongest positive influential factor for exp lain ing the proportion of variance on CEB among all other included variables. The proportion of variance explained by respondent’s education was η 2 = 0.450 and β 2 = 0.432 respectively. The results also noticed that the respondent’s who are illiterate had on average 3.93 ch ildren and those who are highly educated had on average 1.75 children res p ectiv ely . Age at marriage has also a significant negative association (r = -0.235) on CEB (Table 4). Fro m the Table 3, it is seen that the effect of the age at marriage is the second strongest influential factor for exp laining the variation on CEB among the remaining variables. Findings indicate that the age at marriage has strong association (η 2 = 0.235) with mean number of children ever born. But the effect of age at ma rriage re ma ins low even after adjusting for the e ffect of a ll other predictors in the model ( β 2 = 0.135). The mean American Journal of Sociological Research 2012, 2(5): 113-119 117 number of CEB was 2.86 for those women who marry before 18 years and was 2.16 fo r those wo men who marry after 18 years and above respectively. Table 4 revealed that respondent’s wealth index has negative (r = -0.143) significantly effect on CEB. It is noticed that the Table 3, respondent’s wealth index has been found to be the third strongest influential factor for e xpla ining the variat ion on CEB as well as the proportion of variance explained by wealth index was η 2 = 0.144 and β 2 = and religion has also a significant contribution on CEB and found to be negative association (r = -0.076 and r = -0.050 respectively). Occupation of the wo men has positive (r = 0.030) significantly effect on CEB. Tab le 3 shows that the effects of the respondent’s age group, occupation and religions is found to be the fifth, sixth and seventh strongest influential factors for exp lain ing the variation on CEB for all other variables. The proportion of variance exp lained by respondent’s age group was η 2 = 0.088 and β 2 = 0.053 0.053 respectively. It is also noticed from the Table 3, respondents who are rich had on average 2.82 ch ildren and are poor had on average 2.58 children respectively. Place of residence has a significant contribution on CEB. The correlation coefficient is found to be r = 0.094 (Table 4). Findings indicated that the effect of type of place of residence has been found to be the fourth strongest influential factors for exp lain ing the proportion of variance on CEB among all other selected variables. Respondents with an urban residence have lower fertility than that of rural residence. It is seen that type of place of residence has low effect on mean nu mber o f CEB ( η 2 = 0.094 and β 2 = 0.024). The mean CEB (ad justed) in urban and rural areas are 2.65 and 2.76 ch ildren respectively (Table 3). It is observed from the Table 4, respondent’s age group respectively. It is observed that respondent’s who belong to the age group 15-24 had highest effect on mean nu mber of CEB (2.87) and who belongs to the age group 25-34 and 35+ years had lowest effect on CEB were 2.64 and 2.62 children respectively. Respondent’s occupation has less importance on CEB ( η 2 = 0.059 and β 2 = 0.019). Religion also had the low effect on CEB ( η 2 = 0.050 and β 2 = 0.026). The Muslim and Non-muslim respondent’s had on average 2.73 and 2.56 children respectively. Findings indicate that the Muslim co mmunity has higher fertility than their Non-muslim counterparts. The mean nu mber of CEB by using MCA and the zero order correlation coefficients among the selected variables of CEB for wo men who have not experienced domestic violence are given below: Table 3. The Mean Number of CEB for Women Who Have Not Experienced Domestic Violence with Selected Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables by Using MCA Explanatory Variables Predicted Mean Unadjusted Adjust ed Correlation Ratio η 2 (Unadjusted) β 2 (Adjusted) Age group: 15-24 25-34 35+ Respondent ’s Educat ion: No Education Primary Secondary+ Wealth Index: Poor Middle Rich Religion: Muslim Non-muslim Age at First Marriage: <18 18+ Respondent ’s Occupat ion: Unemployed Manual Non-manual Type of Place of Residence: Urban Rural 2.96 2.87 2.58 2.64 2.58 2.62 3.96 3.93 3.93 2.89 1.70 1.75 3.09 2.58 2.85 2.67 2.42 2.82 2.75 2.73 2.40 2.56 2.97 2.86 2.75 2.16 2.66 2.73 2.92 2.67 2.47 2.88 2.46 2.65 2.87 2.76 Grand Mean = 2.72, Mult iple R2 = 0.226 0.088 0.450 0.144 0.050 0.235 0.059 0.094 0.053 0.432 0.053 0.026 0.135 0.019 0.024 118 M d. Rafiqul Islam et al.: Affecting Socio-Demographic Factors on Children Ever Born for Women Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence and Women Who Have Not Experienced Domestic Violence in Bangladesh Table 4. Zero Order Correlation Coefficients among the Selected Variables of CEB for Women Who Have Not Experienced Domestic Violence Select ed variable Age group (X1) Resp on dent ’s educat ion (X2) Wealth index (X3) Religion (X4) Age at marriage (X5) AG (X1) 1.000 0.051** 0.000 0.019 0.042** RE (X2) 1.000 0.075** 0.024 0.235** WI (X3) 1.000 -0.003 0.189** R (X4) 1.000 0.114** AM (X5) 1.000 RO (X6) P R (X7) CEB (X8) Note: ** Significant at the 0.01 level, * Significant at the 0.05 level Table 5. The Result s of Model Fitt ings Models n K Model for Women Who Have Experienced 4214 7 Domestic Violence R2 0.179 ρ 2 cv Shrinkage Coefficient (λ) 0.176069 0.00293 Model for Women Who Have Not Experienced 5932 7 Domestic Violence 0.226 0.224039 0.0019609 Resp on dent ’s o ccup at io n (X6) 0.012 -0.082** -0.085** 0.052** -0.009 1.000 place of residence (X7) CEB (X8) -0.031* -0.161** -0.409** 0.042** -0.160** 0.005 1.000 -0.076** -0.450** -0.143** -0.050** -0.235** 0.030* 0.094** 1.000 1- λ 0.9971 Cal. F 152.87 Tab. F (at 1% level) 2.80 with (6, 4207) d.f. 0.99804 288.34 2.80 with (6, 5925) d.f. The results on model fittings and estimated CVPP corresponding to their R2 of these models are revealed in Table 3. Fro m this table it appears that the fitted models (1) and (2) are cross- validated and their corresponding shrinkage coefficients ( λ ) are 0.00293 and 0.0019609. These imply that the fitted models are fit well. Moreover, the stability for R2 of these models is stable more than 99%. The F statistic results at 1% level of significance are indicated fro m the Table 5 that these models and their corresponding to R2 are highly statistically significant and hence, these are well fitted to the data. religion of the respondents etc. From the above findings it is noticed that total effect of female education on CEB is negative. Education may provide better employ ment opportunities outside home and age at marriage can be raised through providing education. In this paper, it might be suggested that respondent’s age at marriage should be raised and attention should be focused on the need of provid ing educational facilit ies, particu larly in rural areas in order to reduce the level of fertility as well as domestic violence against wo men in Bangladesh. 5. Conclusions and Recommendations In MCA respondent’s education and age at first marriage wo men who have experienced domestic v iolence and wo men who have not experienced domestic violence is one of the most impo rtant correlates, which is the strongest effect for explaining the variability on CEB. Although the average level of education is very low, education still has a strong inverse relationship with CEB. Respondent’s wealth index and type of place of residence have effects on CEB. Other variables have also some importance on reducing fert ility such as respondent’s age, respondent’s occupation and REFERENCES [1] Campbell, J. C. (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence, Lancet, 359(9314): 1331–1336. [2] Krug, E. G. et al. (2002). Op. cit. (see reference 1) and WHO, Violence Against Women, Geneva: WHO, 1997. [3] Watts, C. & Zimmerman, C. (2002). Violence against women: global scope and magnitude, Lancet, 359(9313): 1232–1237. [4] Jejeebhoy, S. J. & Cook, R. J. 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