Research on the impact of social capital on Knowledge Management -- Taking paymayor Noor (banadarbas) of holtzgen University as an example
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https://www.eduzhai.net American Journal of Sociological Research 2016, 6(2): 56-60 DOI: 10.5923/j.sociology.20160602.03 A Survey of the Effect of Social Capital on Knowledge Management (The Case Study: Payame Noor University of Hormozgan (Bandarabbas) Mansooreh Dastranj Faculty of Sociology, University of Payame Noor, Iran Abstract Universities because of the importance and position they play in the every countrie’s socio-economic development, require attention to personnel social capital at the university, because the social capital, makes effective knowledge management possible. Hence, this study was performed to investigate the effect of social capital on knowledge management among staff of payame Noor University at Hormozgan province (Bandar Abbas). This research is surveydescriptive of correlation type and the required data were collected through library- field. The subjects in this study consist of Payame Noor University staff of Hormozgan province. In this study, 54 staff of Bandar Abbas Payame Noor University were selected through random sampling. Data gathering tool was knowledge management questionnaire and knowledge management process was measured based on the five dimensions such as registration knowledge, acquisition knowledge, transmission knowledge, creation knowledge, application knowledge which its validity was face validity and its reliability was established through cronbachs alpha. Data analysis was performed by spss software version 20 using descriptive and inferential statistics such as regression, one way anova, t test. The result show that the staff mean score of knowledge management was 76/66±20/48. The result show that there was a significant relationship between social capital and knowledge management. Also there was a significant relationship between social capital and the five component of knowledge management such as creation of knowledge, acquisition of knowledge, capture of knowledge, transfering of knowledge, application of knowledge. Keywords Knowledge managemen, Social capital, Staff, Hormozgan (Bandar Abbas) Payame Noor University 1. Introduction Universities are the type of the social systems which are the information stimulant force and are known as thinking commanders of communities. Today in order to cope with challenges and complexities of their environment, universities and higher - education establishments have to benefit from modern approaches of management. Knowledge management which is best created in learning and knowledge based enviroments is one of the most efficient ways to achieve the above mentioned goal. Knowledge management study strategy is the process and technology for the purpose of acquisition, selection, organization, decision and application of specialty and vital information for business and work to improve the quality of decision - making and the efficiency of the organization. (Riches, 2005). * Corresponding author: email@example.com (Mansooreh Dastranj) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2016 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved Knowledge management also acts as a science which facilitates quick and easy communication, exchange and transfer of information and expresses the innovation, ability and efficiency in organizations, especially universities. (Lahijaniyan, 2006: 20). The establishment of a successful knowledge management depends on various factors such as social capital which interacts with knowledge management variables. The idea of social capital for the first time was introduced by Jane Jacobs in his classical work. The existence of social capital can increase attraction, codification and transmission of knowledge. Social capital increases knowledge management processes (Hoffiman, Hoelscher & Sherif, 2005). Fukuyama believes social capital is individuals abilities for working together, in order to achieve common goals in groups and organizations (Fukuyama, 2001). According to putnam, social capital is networks and norms of mutual cooperation that will create value (putnam, 2002). Social capital is also an effective factor in the direction of the transfer of knowledge among personnel in organizations and helps them have a better relationship with others as a result of the necessary knowledge they have acquired. American Journal of Sociological Research 2016, 6(2): 56-60 57 Considering the above mentioned information, this study seeks to examine how the impact of social capital on knowledge management at the Hormozgan (Bandar Abbas) Payame Noor University. In this regard the real question of this study is whether the social capital have an impact on knowledge management? whether is there a significant relationship between social capital and dimensions of knowledge management? Therefore, the main aim of the present study, is to examine the impact of social capital on knowledge management at the Hormozgan (BandarAbbas) Payame Noor University. 2. Background and Research Theoretical Hoffiman et al (2005) have investigated the relationship between social capital and knowledge management and how knowledge management impacts organizational performance. The findings of their study shows that there is a significant relationship between social capital and knowledge management, and organizations with higher levels of social capital have more knowledge management compared with organizations with lower levels of social capital. Demori et al (2010) investigate the relationship between knowledge management and social capital at the Islamic University (from the perspective of the faculty members of Yazd university). The results of their studies shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between knowledge management and social capital. The results of the studies done by khanifar et al (2011) shows that there is a significant relationship between components of knowledge management and social capital. Abili & ZareKhalili (2014) in their study showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between organizational social capital and knowledge management. moreover test results showed that all components of social capital have a positive and significant relationship knowledge management. landry et al found good evidence based on the relationship between social capital and knowledge management (Landry et al., 2002). Danpoort & Prosatt (2009) believe that knowledge management helps to create knowledge sharing culture among personnel and create value for organization by converting human capital to the organized intellectual property. (Danpoort & Prosatt, 2009: 12) Specter & Anderson (2000) believe that Knowledge management is a new engine that can remove gaps and spaces. educational institutions that use knowledge management reach to a higher degree of quality, innovation and efficiency (Specter & Anderson, 2000). Hulse considers knowledge management as the process through which organizations find the ability to turn data into information and information into knowledge and will also be able to utilize the acquired knowledge in their decisions effectively. (Abtahi & Salavati, 2007: 34). 3. Research Methodology The present study utilized a quantitative approach by survey method. The subjects of this study consist of all employees and professors of Hormozgan (BandarAbbas) Payame Noor University. Fifty four employees and professors were selected accoording to simple random sampling. The main tools data collection in this research is questionnaire. In order to provide for the reliability of the questionnaire cronbachs alpha was used. The coefficient of Cronbach alpha for social capital was 0/92 percent, and for knowledge management 0/94 percent. These numbers indicate that the questionnaire used in this study enjoys a high reliability. The validity of the questionnaire has been approved by specialists in the field. Data were entered in to statistical package for social science (spss) to be analyzed. To analyze the data from the descriptive statistics methods and inferential statistics,such as Pearson , regression analysis , analysis of variance and t – test were used. 4. Hypotheses - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between social capital and knowledge management. - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between social capital and knowledge management components (creation of knowledge, acquisition of knowledge, capture of knowledge, transfering of knowledge, application of knowledge). - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between age and knowledge management. - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between gender and knowledge management. - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between education degree and knowledge management. - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between work experience and knowledge management. - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between employment status and knowledge management. - Seems to be there is a significant relationship between job category (administrative, scientific) and knowledge management. 5. Finding Based on the results of the descriptive statistics in the sample it was seen in this study 48/1 percent of the subjects are male and 51/9 percent are female. 31people (57/4 percent) less than 35 year, 19 people (35/2 percent) between the ages of 35- 45and 4 people (7/4 percent) higher than 45 year. Regarding marital status 33/3 percent 58 Mansooreh Dastranj: A Survey of the Effect of Social Capital on Knowledge Management (The Case Study: Payame Noor University of Hormozgan (Bandarabbas) are single and 66/7 percent are married. 24/1percent of the subjects have associate degree, 51/9 bachelors’ degree and 24/1 percent master's degree or higher. The most work experience was between 6-10 years with the frequency of 44/4 percent and the least work experience was between 11- 15 years with the frequency of 13 percent. In terms of employment status, the majority of the respondents with 50 percent were working on a contract based. 63 percent of them were clerical and 37 percent were faculty members. The average score of knowledge management among the employees was 76/66 that knowledge transfer has the highest score (16/70) and application of knowledge has the lowest score (10/92). Table 1. Mean and standard deviation knowledge management and its dimensions variable Creation of knowledge Acquisition of knowledge Capture of knowledge Transfering of knowledge Application of knowledge knowledge management Mean ± Standard deviation 11/01±4/20 12/01± 3/25 14/50± 4/51 16/70±4/86 10/92±3/46 76/66±20/48 The findings of the relationship between social capital and knowledge management using regression method, showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between these two variables in the level of significance 0/99 (r= 0/881 and p≤0/01). So the main research hypothesis with the significance level of 0/99 is confirmed. As results indicate social capital has a positive and significant relationship with five dimensions of knowledge management. This is an indication of the confirmation of the research hypothesis. In order to examine the existence of assumptions of the relationship between the age and knowledge management ANOVA was used .as we see the table people in the age range of less than 35 years, 35- 45 years and more than 45 years, had the averages of 78/51,70/10, 93/50 in knowledge management respectively. In fact, the average score of knowledge management has been in between higher in people over 45 years. This hypothesis is also confirmed with the significance level of 0/054. With the significance level of 0/538 this hypothesis which deals with the meaningful difference between knowledge management and gender cannot be confirmed. Table 6 shows the relationship between variables such as degree of education, work experience, employment status and knowledge management using ANOVA. We can see that there is no significant relationship between these variables and the knowledge management. Table 2. Pearson correlation coefficient between social capital and knowledge management Variable R ????????2 Adj.????????2 Standard error B Social capital 0/881 0/775 0/771 9/80 1/18 Beta 0/881 F 179/43 T 13/39 Sig 0/000 Table 3. The relationship between the mean of social capital and dimensions of knowledge management Dimensions of knowledge management Knowledge creation Knowledge acquisition Knowledge capture Knowledge transfer Knowledge application R 0/784 0/740 0/696 0/801 0/745 R2 0/614 0/548 0/485 0/641 0/555 Adj.????????2 0/607 0/539 0/475 0/635 0/547 Standard error 2/63 2/20 3/27 2/94 2/33 B 0/216 0/158 0/206 0/255 0/169 Beta 0/784 0/740 0/696 0/801 0/745 F 82/87 62/94 48/88 93/02 64/87 Sig 0/000 0/000 0/000 0/000 0/000 Table 4. Results of the ANOVA of knowledge management with age age Frequency Less than 35years 31 35- 45 years 19 More than45years 4 Total 54 Mean 78/51 70/10 93/50 76/66 Standard deviation 19/29 20/28 23/18 20/48 Standard error 3/46 4/65 11/59 2/78 Sum of squares 2057/46 Mean square F Sig 1028/73 2/59 0/054 Gender Female Male Table 5. Test results of mean difference of knowledge management in terms of gender Frequency 28 26 Mean 78/32 74/88 Standard deviation 23/61 16/76 Levenes Test 2/40 T 0/620 Sig 0/538 American Journal of Sociological Research 2016, 6(2): 56-60 59 Table 6. Results of the analysis of variance of knowledge management with degree of education, work experience and employment status Variable Education degree Work experience Employment status F 0/357 1/89 0/342 Sig 0/701 0/160 0/712 Table 7. Test results of mean difference of knowledge management in terms of job categories Job categories Administrative Scientific Frequency 34 20 Mean 75/29 79/00 Standard deviation 22/66 16/41 Levenes Test 1/56 T 0/491 Sig 0/216 According to the level of significant, this hypothesis which deals with the meaningful difference between knowledge management and job is not confirmed. - promoting research and development level and coherent communication with other universities research and development centers. 6. Conclusions Results of testing research hypotheses shows that the average score of knowledge management among people over 45 years is more compared to other two age gorups (less than 35years, 35-45years). Thus, the assumption of the existence of the relationship between age and knowledge management is confirmed. As the results of the study show social capital has a positive and significant relationship with the five dimensions of knowledge management. This finding is in line with the results of the study done by Abili & Zarekhalili, 2014, Hoffiman et al, 2005, Khanifar, 2011. Another finding of this study confirms that there is not a significant relationship between gender, degree of education, the employment status, work experience, type of job and knowledge management. REFERENCES  Abtahi, H., & Salavati, A (2007), Knowledge management in organization, Tehran, payvand noo publication, first edition.  Abili, Kh., & Zare Khalili, M (2014), the relationship between organizational social capital with knowledge management in a state insurance company. bulletin insurance, 28(2), 129-152.ensani.ir/fa/content/322976/default.aspx.  Danpoort, E., & Prosatt, B (2009). The role of knowledge management in universities goals. http://www.kms.com.  Demori, D., Mansuri, H., & Taheri, M (2010). To examine the relationship knowledge management with social capital at the Islamic University (from the perspective of the faculty members at the University of Yazd). Quarterly Cognitive Studies at the Islamic University. 13(1), 44-64. Noormags.ir/view/fa/creator/121923. 7. Recommendations Organizations in order to benefit from effective knowledge management for their organization must try to strenghthen the social capital and mutual trust among their staff. In order to strengthen the growth of social capital and knowledge management the following can be considered: - Providing active participation for the employees in order to solve the problems of the organization and create a climate of mutual trust. - Encouraging working procedures at universities so that employment policy should not be based only on speciality, but on the person's ability to communicate with others and the person’s interest in working with the group. - knowledge creatin is an important indicator for the implementation of knowledge management. With regards to the meaningful relationship between social capital and creation knowledge, it is suggested that universities value knowledsge creatrion mechanisms.  Fukuyama, F (2001). Social capital, civil society and development, third world quarterly, 1 (22). 7-20.  Hoffiman, J., Hoelscher, M.L., & Sherif, K (2005). Social capital, knowledge management and sustained superior performance. Journal of knowledge management. 9 (3). 93-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270510602791.  Khanifar, H., Emami, M., & Nazari, M (2011). The survey of correlation between social capital and knowledge management. Australian journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 5 (12), 719-726. http://ssrn.com/abstract=2305847.  Lahijaniyan, A (2006). Studies of knowledge management in the higher education system and provide convenient, thesis PHD, education aladministration, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research.  Landry, R., Amara, N., & Lamari, M (2002). Does social capital determine innovation? to what extent, technological forecasting &social change, 69, 681-701.www.inovacijos.it/ inopagalba/cms/114it.pdf.doi:10.1016/s0040.1625(01)00170 -6.  Putnam, R (2002). Democracies in flux, the evolution of social capital in contemporary society, oxford university press. 60 Mansooreh Dastranj: A Survey of the Effect of Social Capital on Knowledge Management (The Case Study: Payame Noor University of Hormozgan (Bandarabbas)  Riches, P (2005). Organizational Coherence and Knowledge Management. KM Review Brifing, 7(4). En, journals.sid.ir/viewpaper.aspx?ID=212638.  Spector, J. M & Anderson, T. M (2000). Integrated and holistic perspectives on learning instruction and technology.www.springer.com/gp/.../97807923670.ISBN978 -0-7923-6705-5.
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