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Comparison of psychological resilience and moral IQ between drug addicts and relapsed addicts and the effects of gender roles on these variables

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2017, 7(1): 19-26 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijpbs.20170701.04 Comparison of Extent of Psychological Hardiness and Moral Intelligence among Individuals Quitted Addiction and Individuals with Addiction Relapse and Examination of Effect of Gender Roles on These Variables Mohammad Nabi Zadeh Msc at Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran Abstract The present research intends to compare extent of psychological hardiness and moral intelligence among individuals quitted addiction and individuals with addiction relapse and examine effect of gender roles on variables of psychological Hardiness and moral intelligence. In this research, casual-comparative method has been used as the research method. The statistical population consists of the men attended in NA meetings in Khansar and the addicted men who have referred to one of the Addiction Recovery Center in Khansar for treatment. The sample group consists of 50 individuals who have quitted addiction and 50 individuals who have had addiction relapse, selected via convenient sampling method. The instruments include Moral Intelligence Questionnaire link and Keil, Bem’s sex role questionnaire and Ahvaz Psychological Hardiness Questionnaire (AHI). Results from Wilks' lambda and multivariate covariance analysis indicated that moral intelligence is greater among individuals who have quitted addiction than individuals with addiction relapse, but there is no significant difference on extent of psychological hardiness in two groups. Further, results from Compare Means Test-LSD indicated that psychological hardiness of the participants with androgynous gender role has been greater than the participants with masculine and feminine gender roles. Results from chi-square test in this research did not indicate a significant difference in the frequency of belonging to gender roles in both groups who have quitted addiction and those with addiction relapse. It seems that it can increase extent of androgynous feature, psychological hardiness and moral intelligence in individuals by training masculine and feminine gender roles and adjusting gender roles. In this regards, it can also increase power of resistance against life stresses including power of resistance against temptation to relapse to drug abuse. Keywords Psychological Hardiness, Moral intelligence, Addiction, Gender role 1. Introduction Drug addiction as a chronically relapsing brain disease entitled with drug craving, drug abuse and abstinence syndrome has been regarded as a major concern (Nestler, 2001; quoted from Li et al. 2012), specified with compulsive drug seeking and continuous using together with outcomes and problems related to health, social and economic issues and lack of control on drug use (Cami, Farre, 2003; quoted from Justinova et al. 2009). It seems that there are some certain behavioral patterns among young addicts. These behavioral patterns have been called heroin behavior syndrome: Underlying depression associated with symptoms of agitation and anxiety, impulsive behavior or passive –aggressive orientation, fear of failure, Heroin use as an * Corresponding author: mo.nabizadeh26@gmail.com (Mohammad Nabi Zadeh) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved anti-anxiety to cover low self-esteem feeling, frustration and anger, limited coping strategies and low tolerance for frustration, the need for instant gratification, sensitivity to events related to the drug and enthusiastic awareness from feeling of happiness and drug use, sense of behavioral impotence which converts to temporary control over the life situation by drug use, disorder in personal and inter-personal relationships which sustain by means of common drug experiences. Recent psychodynamic formulation associates to the relationship between the drug abuse and depression or introduces drug abuse as reflection of ego actions (Sadock, Sadock, 2003, trans-Pour afkari). Researchers have conducted extensive studies on personality dimensions of addicts. In these studies, personality characteristics have been mentioned as an agent which induces the person to addiction (Chakroun, Doron, Swendsen, 2004; Lukasiewich et al, 2008; Grana, Munoz, Navas, 2008, quoted from Mola zadeh Esfanjani et al. 2011). Psychological hardiness has been regarded as one of the personality characteristics which has been less drawn into attention in the context of addiction. 20 Mohammad Nabi Zadeh: Comparison of Extent of Psychological Hardiness and Moral Intelligence among Individuals Quitted Addiction and Individuals with Addiction Relapse and Examination of Effect of Gender Roles on These Variables Maddi, Wadhwa, Haier (1996) in a research indicated negative correlation between psychological hardiness and addiction to drugs and alcohol. Algaz (2007), quoted from Tarkhan et al. (2012), studied effect of training psychological hardiness on reducing drug abuse and indicated that psychological hardiness decreases drug abuse among addicts. The results from the research by Molazadeh Esfanjani, Kafi and Salehi (2011) and Karam Afrouz & Afshar nia (2014) indicated that psychological hardiness and its subscales are less among addicts than typical individuals. Personality hardiness refers to a pattern of attitudes and strategies that develops assertiveness and motivation for hardworking under stressful situations and conditions and converts potential disasters and calamities to the opportunities for growth (Cowdrey, Walters, 2013). More specifically, this pattern puts an emphasis on significance of involvement against isolation, control against weakness and defiance against threat. Research has indicated hardiness as an agent which affects effective coping resulting in well-being and increase of performance (Kamtsios, Karagiannopoulou, 2012). People with high level of hardiness tend to see the world interesting and meaningful and involve in different activities around them. More specifically, there is much belief in ability of people with high level of hardiness to control or affect course of events, receive new experience and use the opportunity for learning and personal growth as well as the internal motivation for sense of purpose (Subramanian et al. 2013). Moral intelligence is another personality characteristic which has been less likely drawn into attention in the context of addiction. Moral intelligence refers to capacity and ability for deep understanding from violation and the strong moral beliefs and adherence to them in right direction (Borba, 2005; quoted from Eskandari et al. 2012). Moral intelligence has different dimensions, so that link and Keil belive that moral intelligence encompasses four major dimensions including Compassion, forgiveness, honesty, and integrity (Bahrami et al. 2012). With regard to definition for moral intelligence, it can define culpability as self-consciousness emotion which attributes to a negative assessment, indicating a behavior that exceeds from moral norm. This unpleasant emotion which emerges in social areas adjusts moral behavior (Baumeister et al. 1994; Haidt, 2003; Rebega et al. 2013). In the research on 654 students in 11 schools by Bentler (1992), quoted by Fathi et al. (2010), early youth addiction has contributed in collective violation acts. Kozlov & Rokhlina (2000) on a research on 100 male and female addicted to drug used the term “Addictive personality” and indicated that these individuals have numerous personality disorders such as transient rational distresses and reduction of moral principles. Results from the research by Zeinali, Vahdat and Isavi (2008) indicated that improper lifestyle, unhealthy social and family relationship and wrong beliefs make the person ready to use drug. In this research, gender role has been introduced as the third personality trait. Gender role is an extrinsic behavioral pattern which reflects the internal feeling of the person from his gender identity “I am a woman” and “I am a man” (Saduk & Saduk, 2003; trans- Pourafkari, 2007). Concept of gender role identity relates to this idea whether a person has internalized favorable gender roles from social perspective for one or two gender types (Weiss, Russakoff, 1981). However most of people consider themselves in form of gender role, there are minorities who enjoy a gender identity named androgyny. They gain high scores in masculine and feminine attributes (Bem, 1974; Boldizar, 1991; Berk, 2001; trans- Seid Mohammadi, 2007). Individuals with androgynous gender are more adjustable from behavioral perspective, e.g. they can display masculine autonomy or feminine affection dependent on conditions. Androgyny predicts high self-esteem; further it associates to advanced moral reasoning and mental maturity (Taylor, Hall, 1982; Turner, 1982; Huyck, 1996; trans- Seid Mohammadi, 2007). Findings of the research by Rose, Montemayor (1994), Lynch (1998), Reilly (2010), Marrs, Sigler, Brammer (2012) display higher extent of some moral intelligence components among individuals with androgynous gender compared to individuals with masculine and feminine gender role. With regard to Bam Theory, high levels of traits of both genders in a person raise the most adaptive gender characteristic. The people who can have a lot of kindness if required, and make decisions easily and without doubt and hesitation at the other right time enjoy better psychological well-being and can cope with mental pressures of life(Woodhill, Samuels, 2005; quoted from Ali Akbari Dehkordi et al. 2011). However, no research on effect of gender role on addiction to drug abuse was found in this research, but it can propose the hypotheses below regarding what said above. 1- extend of psychological hardiness is higher among the individuals who have quitted addiction than the individuals with addiction relapse. 2- extent of moral intelligence is greater among individuals who have quitted addiction than individuals with addiction relapse. 3- gender roles have a significant effect on extent of psychological hardiness. 4- gender roles have a significant effect on extent of moral intelligence. 5- frequency of androgynous gender role is greater among the individuals who have quitted addiction than the individuals with addiction relapse. 2. Research Method The present research is a casual-comparative research. Casual-comparative research method refers to a type of quantitative research which seeks to discover the potential causes and their effects by comparing the individuals qualified with personal characteristic or behavioral pattern and the individuals who lack less degrees of that characteristic (Gall et al. 1996; quoted from Tabatabaei et al. 2010). International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2017, 7(1): 19-26 21 Statistical population, sample group and sampling method In this research, the statistical population consists of the men attended in NA meetings in Khansaras the ones who have quitted addiction and the addicted men who have quitted addiction but have had addiction relapse and referred to one of the Addiction Recovery Center in Khansarfor treatment. The sample group consists of 50 individuals who have quitted addiction and 50 individuals who have had addiction relapse, selected via convenient sampling method. The instruments include Moral Intelligence Questionnaire link and Keil, Bem’s sex role questionnaire and Ahvaz Psychological Hardiness Questionnaire (AHI). Moral Intelligence Questionnaire link and Keil: this questionnaire consists of 40 items. Link, Keil & Jordan (2011), quoted from Azizi (2011), have considered 10 competencies for moral intelligence: - Action based on principles, values and beliefs Keeping promise, responsibility for personal decisions, admitting to mistakes and failures, the responsibility to serve others, actively interested in others, ability in forgiving our mistakes and the ability in forgiving mistakes of others. Validity and reliability of questionnaire have been confirmed by Martin & Austin (2010), quoted from Azizi (2011). In Iran, Arasteh, Azizi, Shamami, Jaffari rad & Mohammadi Jozani have normalized this questionnaire in 2011(quoted from Imami et al. 2014). In Iran, reliability of questionnaire was calculated via retest on a sample group (16) and the Cronbach's alpha was obtained equal to 0.89 (Bahrami, Assami, Fateh Panah, Dehghani & Ahmadi, 2012; quoted from Imami et al. 2014). Further, they confirmed face and content validity as well as the internal consistency of their components. The moral intelligence was scored based on five-point Likert scale that scores 1 to 5 are given to never to always. After scoring, the sum is divided into 2. The score of moral intelligence subscales are calculated in this way, i.e. sum of score of the questions in each subscale will be divided into 2 (Azizi, 2011). Bem’s sex role questionnaire Sandra Bem (1974) prepared a test which measures androgyny. The test consists of 60 characteristics. The respondents are asked to display to which extent that characteristic can explain them at a scale ranging from 1 to 7. Among 60 existing characteristics, 20 characteristics are in form of feminine stereotypes, 20 characteristics are in form of masculine stereotypes, and 20 characteristics are neutral. When the individuals do the test, they obtain two scores which one is masculinity score and one is femininity score. Masculinity score refers to their average self-assessments about masculinity and their femininity score refers to their average self-assessments about their femininity. A score will be given to each person in this way at each of two scales. Bem (1977) has defined “high” greater than median (median refers to an average score). Hence, individuals with androgynous gender role will be called to those whose score is greater in masculinity and femininity scales (mean at each of these scales is about 4.9). a person with feminine characteristic having the high scores in femininity and low scores in masculinity has feminine characteristic; in the same way, a person with masculine characteristic having high score in masculinity but low score in femininity has masculine characteristic. Ultimately, the individuals who gain low score at both scales are called undifferentiated, because they are not ranked high in any of masculine or feminine characteristics, thus the person can be considered in one of group groups including masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated by doing Bem’s sex role questionnaire (Majdian, 2007): Reliability and validity Cronbach's alpha and reliability coefficient have been obtained at two masculine and feminine scales equal to 0.75 and 0.67. Further, internal consistency coefficients were calculated equal to 0.75 and 0.90, indicating internal consistency of questionnaire (Yahyaei, 1998, quoted from Khamseh, 2007). In research by Abdi, reliability and validity of test have been confirmed (Abdi, 2003, quoted from Khamseh, 2007). Ahvaz Hardiness Inventory This questionnaire is a scale consisting of 27 items which items never, seldom, often and more often have been considered for values 0, 1, 2, and 3 so as to score this scale. The original version of Ahvaz Hardiness Inventory belongs to Kobasa. Kiamarthi (1998), quoted from Abdi Zarin et al. (2008), has used two retest and internal consistency methods to measure reliability of this scale. Correlation coefficient has been reported equal to 0.85 for the sample group (119). Cronbach's alpha coefficient to measure internal consistency of scale among sample group (523) was obtained equal to 0.76. Concurrent criterion validity was used to measure validity of test and concurrently four criterion questionnaires including Anxiety Questionnaire (AnQ), Ahvaz Depression Inventory (ADI), Maslow Self-Actualization Inventory (MSAI) and Hardiness Validity Scale (HVS) (Abdi Zarin et al. 2008). 3. Findings Mean and standard deviation of participants in the variables including psychological hardiness and moral intelligence concerning gender role and addiction quit have been represented in table 1. According to table 1, concerning psychological hardiness, it can observe that scores of individuals with androgynous gender role is higher than other gender roles among the participants who have quitted addiction. Further, concerning moral intelligence, mean of scores of individuals with androgynous gender role is higher than mean of scores of individuals with other gender roles. Among the individuals with addiction relapse, there has been this status so that the individuals with androgynous gender role have acquired 22 Mohammad Nabi Zadeh: Comparison of Extent of Psychological Hardiness and Moral Intelligence among Individuals Quitted Addiction and Individuals with Addiction Relapse and Examination of Effect of Gender Roles on These Variables higher scores in both variables of psychological hardiness and moral intelligence. Further, results from table 1 indicate that despite gender role type, mean of scores of individuals who have quitted addiction is greater than mean of scores of the individuals with addiction relapse in both variables of moral intelligence and psychological hardiness. Yet, these differences have been explanatory, not indicating significant differences. Hence, inferential tests were used to examine significance of these differences which the results have been mentioned as follow: With regard to lack of significance of Box’test (P=0.06, M=36.50) and lack of significance of Levin’s test for psychological hardiness (P=0.52, M=0.89) and moral intelligence (P=0.17, M=1.57), MANCOVA was used to compare scores of psychological hardiness and moral intelligence in both groups of those who have quitted addiction and those with addiction relapse, which the results have been represented in tables 2 & 3. Table 1. Mean and standard deviation of scores gender role and addiction quit Index Addiction quit Addiction Relapse Participant Masculine feminine androgynous undifferentiated sum Masculine feminine androgynous undifferentiated sum Mean Psychological hardiness Moral intelligence 74/40 77/10 74/20 75 83/85 78/85 75/66 68/00 77/85 75/82 74/00 65/16 70/00 68/00 79/01 76/37 78/00 64/00 76/40 69/70 Standard deviation Psychological hardiness Moral intelligence 8/98 3/54 4/08 3/65 5/01 5/97 2/88 2/64 6/03 5/58 8/98 12/80 0/07 3/53 10/79 7/01 8/75 14/51 9/40 11/32 Table 2. Results from Wilks’ Lambda to compare scores of psychological hardiness and moral intelligence in both groups considering effect of gender roles Indices Eigenvalue F Assumed freedom degree Error freedom degree Sig Eta square Power Status of quitting 0/86 2/43 1 Gender roles 0/63 2/68 3 Correlation between gender roles & status 0/86 0/76 3 of quitting 61 0/10 0/13 0/45 122 0/02 0/20 0/83 122 0/60 0/06 0/28 Indices Status of quitting Gender roles Gender roles+ Status of quitting Table 3. Results from multivariate covariance analysis based on dependent variables Eigenvalue F Assumed freedom degree Error freedom degree Sig Eta square Psychological hardiness 26/34 1 26/34 0/46 0/49 0/01 Moral intelligence 336/80 1 336/80 5/00 0/03 0/13 Psychological hardiness 515/74 3 171/91 3/05 0/04 0/22 Moral intelligence 703/40 3 234/46 3/48 0/02 0/24 Psychological hardiness 75/81 3 25/27 0/45 0/71 0/04 Moral intelligence 150/38 3 50/12 0/74 0/53 0/06 Power 0/10 0/58 0/66 0/72 0/13 0/19 International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2017, 7(1): 19-26 23 Table 4. Results from Least square difference (LSD) for pairwise comparison of mean of scores of groups based on gender roles in each of dependent variables Dependent variable Group I Group J Difference of mean (I-J) Sig 1/18 0/74 masculine feminine androgynous -7/09 0/02 psychological undifferentiated androgynous -2/81 0/44 hardiness feminine undifferentiated -8/27 0/02 androgynous undifferentiated -4/00 0/32 4/27 0/22 -2/40 0/54 masculine feminine androgynous -6/94 0/04 moral intelligence undifferentiated androgynous 4/87 0/22 feminine undifferentiated -4/53 0/23 androgynous undifferentiated 7/28 0/10 11/81 0/00 Table 5. Results from chi-squared test for the observed and expected frequencies Group Sum Quitting addiction addiction relapse Observed frequency 24 androgynous Expected frequency 23 Gender roles Observed frequency 26 Other gender roles Expected frequency 27 26 50 23 46 24 50 27 54 Observed frequency Sum Expected frequency 50 50 100 50 50 100 As shown in table 2, it can observe that there is no significant difference between two groups including those who have quitted the addiction and the ones with addiction relapse in dependent variables. Yet, table 2 indicates that there is a significant difference between these two groups in variable of moral intelligence considering each of variables separately. In this regards, with regard to results from table 1, it can say that moral intelligence is greater among the individuals who have quitted addiction than the individuals with addiction relapse. Therefore, the first hypothesis of research concerning a significant difference between two groups including those who have quitted the addiction and the ones with addiction relapse in extent of psychological hardiness is not confirmed. Yet, the second hypothesis concerning a significant difference between two groups including those who have quitted the addiction and the ones with addiction relapse in extent of moral intelligence is confirmed. Results from table 2 indicate a significant effect of gender roles in dependent variables. Results from table 3 indicate that such effect is significant for each of variables of psychological hardiness and moral intelligence separately. Therefore, the third and fourth hypotheses of research concerning significant effect of gender roles on two variables of psychological hardiness and moral intelligence are confirmed. Least square difference (LSD) has been used for pairwise comparison of effect of gender roles on variables of psychological hardiness and moral intelligence, which the results have been proposed in table 4. According to table 4, it can observe that there is no significant difference on mean of masculine gender role and means of feminine and undifferentiated gender roles in the variable psychological hardiness, but there is a significant difference between mean of masculine gender role and androgynous gender role, so that mean of psychological hardiness among the individuals with androgynous gender role has been higher than mean of the individuals with masculine gender role. Further, mean of androgynous gender role has been higher than mean of feminine gender role. Yet, there is no significant difference between means of feminine gender role and undifferentiated gender role and between undifferentiated gender role and androgynous gender role. Therefore, it can say that psychological hardiness of the participants with androgynous gender role has been higher than the participants with masculine or feminine gender role. Concerning moral intelligence, there is no significant difference between mean of masculine gender role and means of feminine and undifferentiated gender roles, yet there is a significant difference between mean of masculine gender role and androgynous gender role. In this regards, mean of moral intelligence has been greater among the individuals with androgynous gender role than the individuals with masculine gender role. Further, difference of mean of moral intelligence is greater among the individuals with androgynous gender role than individuals with undifferentiated gender role, yet there is no significant difference between mean of individuals with feminine 24 Mohammad Nabi Zadeh: Comparison of Extent of Psychological Hardiness and Moral Intelligence among Individuals Quitted Addiction and Individuals with Addiction Relapse and Examination of Effect of Gender Roles on These Variables gender role and means of individuals with other gender roles. Therefore, it can say that moral intelligence of the participants with androgynous gender role has been greater than the individuals with masculine or undifferentiated gender roles. To examine the fifth hypothesis of research concerning a significant difference in frequency of gender roles, chi-squared test was used. The results have been represented in tables 5 & 6. In this analysis, a code has been considered for androgynous gender role and a code has been considered for rest of gender roles. Table 6. Results from chi-squared test to compare two groups in frequency of gender roles Indices Value Freedom degree Sig chi-squared 0/10 1 0/74 Results from table 5 indicate that there is no significant difference between observed and expected frequencies. Results from table 6 indicate that there is no significant difference between individuals in two groups in terms of frequency of gender roles, thus the fifth hypothesis of research is not confirmed. In addition to the analyses about major hypotheses of research, the effect of quitting status and gender roles on dependent variables of research was examined. According to tables 2 and 3, this effect in total or part has not been significant. 4. Discussion and Conclusions Results from this research indicated that the moral intelligence is greater among the individuals who have quitted the addiction than the individuals with addiction relapse. Link, Keil & Jordan (2011), quoted from Azizi (2011), have considered 10 competencies for moral intelligence: - Action based on principles, values and beliefs Keeping promise, responsibility for personal decisions, admitting to mistakes and failures, the responsibility to serve others, actively interested in others, ability in forgiving our mistakes and the ability in forgiving mistakes of others. Since the individuals who have quitted addiction have been a member of Narcotics Anonymous and Other Addiction Support Groups, there is this probability that the moral intelligence of these individuals had increased as the result of attendance in these groups and use of self-help principles and programs. Some of the concepts of principles or steps of Narcotics Anonymous and Other Addiction Support Groups include: Admits to being incapable, the belief in a superior power, reliance on God, admit your error, the help of God to overcome the defects of character and moral shortcomings, compensation from those who have been hurt, helping other addicts’ awareness. Through taking accuracy in principles of Narcotics Anonymous and Other Addiction Support Groups, it can perceive equality of these principles with components of moral intelligence. Results from this research do not indicate a significant difference on extent of psychological hardiness among the individuals who have quitted the addiction and the ones with addiction relapse, which this result is not consistent with the findings of research by Maddi, S, R. Wadhwa, P & Haier, R, J. (1996), Molazadeh Esfanjani, Kafi & Salehi (2011), Karam Afrouz & Afshar nia (2014). Since the sample group has been selected among those with addiction relapse with membership in one of Addiction Recovery Center in Khvansar, there is this probability that Psychotherapy might had caused increase in psychological hardiness of these individuals. Other findings of this research indicate that psychological hardiness of the participants with androgynous gender role has been greater than the participants with masculine and feminine gender roles. To justify this result, it should be noted that both psychological hardiness and androgynous gender role can be an index to predict mental health of the person, such that Maddi & Khoshaba (1994), quoted from Shaabani (2008), Hatami & Shaabani (2010), have known hardiness as a quick index to measure mental health, because they have concluded in a research on correlation with Minesotta Multiphasie Personality Inventory that hardiness refers to a general measure of mental health rather than product from negative sensation-seeking which had been controlled. The same hardiness theory has examined most of other theories of the man from perspective of mental health with an emphasis on his competencies. The characteristics found by Kubasa in the individuals with high hardiness are consistent with the characteristics that other psychologists such as Carl Rogers, Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow and others have been mentioned for healthy man (Hattami & Shaabani, 2010). Numerous studies have been conducted on the relationship between psychological hardiness and psychological adjustment and mental health, including the studies by Mostafaei (2012), Sajadi, Khalaatbari, Panahi & Sajadi (2012), Kalantar, Khadari, Nikbakht, Motavalian (2013), Shepperd, Kashani (1991), Schellenberg (2005), Hjemdal, Friborg, Stiles, Rosenvinge, Martinussen (2006), Bartone, Roland, Picano, Williams (2008), Vinothkumar (2009), Nathawat, Desai, Majumdar (2010). Concerning androgynous gender role, studies have put emphasis on the relationship between androgynous gender role and mental health. From point of view of Bem (1981), quoted from Abolghasemi, Kiamarthi (2006), Androgens have a gender separate from others having better mental health and behavior. Since 1975 to date, numerous studies have been conducted about features of individuals with androgynous gender role by Bem et al. the studies which indicate a positive relationship between androgynous gender role, mental health and mental well-being include Sebastian & Valle (1988), quoted from Ali Akbari Dehkordi, Shekar Kan & Mohtashemi (2011), Sebastian, Valle (1997), quoted from Ali Akbari Dehkordi, Shekar Kan & Mohtashemi (2011), Stake (1997), quoted from Asgari (2006) & Asgari, Ehtesham zadeh & Pir zaman (2010), Samuels (2000), quoted from Asgari (2006) & Asgari, Ehtesham zadeh & Pir zaman (2010), Cheng (2005), Mueller, Dato-On (2007), Rath, Odisha, Mishra (2013), Ivtzan, Conneely (2009), International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2017, 7(1): 19-26 25 Szpitalak, Prochwicz (2013). It seems that the individuals with androgynous gender role due to having higher mental health and mental well-being will have higher psychological hardiness in the course of life. Findings of this research indicated that moral intelligence of individuals with androgynous gender role is greater than individuals with undifferentiated gender role. This finding is consistent with the findings of research by Rose & his colleague (1994), Lynch (1998), Riley (2010), March, Ziegler & his colleague (2012) who have indicated that some components of moral intelligence are higher among individuals with androgynous gender role compared to individuals with masculine and feminine gender roles. According to Burk (2001), trans-Seid Mohammadi (2007), androgyny associates to advanced moral reasoning and mental maturity. Results from the present research did not indicate a significant difference between androgynous gender role among individuals quitted addiction and individuals with addiction relapse. 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