Advisory Group on peace building and security development in the Niger Delta
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2018, 8(2): 17-21 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijpbs.20180802.01 Counselling for Peace Building and Security Development in the Niger Delta Oghiagbephan A. Daniel Lecturer Dept. of Educational Psychology, College of Education, Warri, Nigeria Abstract This paper intends to provide suggestions for peace building and security development in the Niger Delta region. The study adopted the use of descriptive survey research design using one hundred and fifty (150) counselling students from three (3) Colleges of Education in the region as sampled respondents. They were selected using the simple random sampling technique. The selection of samples is proper and the data analyzing appear logically clear and methods logically rights. A structured questionnaire consisting of twenty (20) items was designed and its reliability index was 0.86% reliance. The chi-square inferential statistics was employed as analytical tool which decided the reference made at 0.05% level of significance. Result on table three (3) show chi-square (x2) calculated t value of 0.67 was found less than 2.47 critical value was upheld. This portrayed the immense contribution counselling has on peace building and dispute resolution. As implication it is expected that professional counsellors posses the influence on character molding and the zeal to instill mores, values and norms for an individual to become actualized. The paper recommended among others that government at all levels should organize seminary, workshops, conferences and short courses to young people to promote harmony and peace building in the Niger Delta region. Keywords Counselling, Peace building, Security development 1. Introduction In every human environment the cause of poverty is an antithesis to prosperity and seemingly breeds social unrest. The reflection is common with a virile society in terms of opportunities to its citizens who can explore every means possible to undo injustice when perceived right in accordance to the rule of law is truncated. A delayed resolution as well further condemns future generations to subtle or fruitile ground for thuggery, hooliganism, all forms of restiveness, promotion of low-morals and so on. Though trivial this may sound, it has posed serious threat, fear and general insecurity that may suggest the region Niger Delta is not at peace. The region is blessed abundantly with human and natural resources such s vast and reproductive agricultural farmland, solar energy as well as beautiful and variety of climatic condition and excellent vegetation, (Oghojefa, 2014). The nations’ wealth in petroleum deposit are a residue of the region, abundant tourism sites like; Obudu cattle ranch and Tinapa in Cross River State, Ighedume and Benin Zoological garden in Edo State, River Ethiope with source from a tree Umutu, in Delta State and so on. Amidst these abundance, abject poverty is endemic * Corresponding author: email@example.com (Oghiagbephan A. Daniel) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2018 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved among the people with varying health challenges as a result of the ever increasing environmental degradation. Conflict cases in Nigeria became very sore or took a different dimension when the agitations for better living conditions and environmental sustainability in the Niger Delta heightened, abduction and demand for ransom spread out to the eastern region, cultism and political thuggery were carried out with ease cover. The discovery of fossil fuel in 1956 in Oloibiri present day Bayelsa State, and in recent time other neighbouring states has been bedeviled by the absence of development (basic amenities – water, electricity, good road and unemployment) amidst environmental contamination (oil spillage, gas flaring) which has affected negatively the farm lands, aquatic life, natural water sources of drinkable water, corrosion (acid rain) migration and extinction of wide-life and general bio-diversity destruction. The consistent failure by government step down the scale of industrial waste/activities through cleaning up of affected regions and making converted efforts to stop gas flaring and reclamation of forest reserves that will lead to the improvement of the quality of life and sustainability for future generations. This continuous friction between varying interest in some clans leads to disruption of existing social bonds and on the extreme initiate anarchy. The state of these acts of insecurity has so ebulliently threatened the security of life and property of people especially temporal settlers from within and outside the country. This situation poses far reaching 18 Oghiagbephan A. Daniel: Counselling for Peace Building and Security Development in the Niger Delta implications on social development, social stability and national security. National security in post millennium Nigeria also connote regional security required to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic, diplomatic and political power (Wikipedia, 2011). The loose attention given to security challenges coupled with political tension has brought the region to a near state of general chaos, in contrast to section 14 (6) of the 1999 constitution as amended, and quote: The security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government (FRN, 2014). Okorafor (2012) viewed national and regional security as the sum total of the efforts, energy, intelligence, commitment and the use of institutions to enforce and to ensure adequate protection of interest, people and properties of a nation. The perception of the author on the topic “Counselling for Peace Building and Security Development” is to champion the prominence of being gainful at the instance of achieving peace in the Niger Delta, in order that both the occupant and the nation may continue in profit it is the pain of the author that young people of selected age are often use ad cut in the web of violence and insecurity. To this end, it therefore behoves the government to apply the instrumentality of education such as counselling and peace education in behaviour modification of young people from the region on peace building and security development. 2. Statement of the Problems The absence of peace building and security development is a major economic virus militating against the economy, and well being of many regions in Nigeria in the Niger Delta not in excursion. Akin (2008) defined security as the situation that exists as a result of the establishment of measures for the protection of persons, information and property against hostile persons, influence and actions. A reverse is the case in some parts of the Niger Delta with increase in crime, violence and corruption, vandalization of oil installation, armed robbery and kidnapping and so on. All these are manifestations of regional and national insecurity that threatened peaceful existence. In the past, programmes like; the National Youth Service Corps, Federal Quota Character, National Policy on Education etc. all played a little to strengthen National and regional integration and peaceful co-existence within and between regions. The term “peace” is globally considered as the fundamental basis of stability, progress and development in human societies. Olubuyi and Tyokase (2014) cited in Oghojefa (2015) observed that, education is utilized in societies’ struggles to overcome poverty and enhance peace building and security. An alternative to violence is the introduction of peace education to inculcate the mores and values needed for peace building. In the same vain school counselors reserve the potentialities of teaching the different sector operators in the region specific skills such as goal getting processes, stress reduction (relaxation) techniques using programmes like the intentionally structured groups in order to drive home the interest that will promote peace building. Okoye (2013) in Agbajor (2016) view education in its functionality, to him education is an all round development of an individual which includes intellectual, physical, moral, emotional and social aspects as well as acquisition of vocational skills and aesthetic senses. This definition exemplified the volume of potentialities that should reflect in different aspects of regional development. Olugbuyi (2014) in Oghojefa (2015) defined education as the acquisition of knowledge, the configuration of all processes through which a person develops ability, skills, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of positive impact to the society. In the myriad of challenges confronting the region that gave birth to the military introduction of operation python dance I and II the questions exist; is the Nigerian educational system relevant in addressing the nation’s problem of insecurity? What indices in the educational system can promote peace building in the region? How will government utilize the potentialities of counseling centres on challenges of youth restiveness? These questions remain the crux of this research effort and suggestion will be made based on the findings. 3. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to identify educational measures using counselling to promote peace building and security development in the Niger Delta region. The study is to proffer solutions through the application of security and peace education to promote peace in the region, it will consider the application of counselling techniques in addressing youth restiveness in the region. 4. Research Hypotheses These two research hypotheses were drawn to be tested and the responses will be analyzed; 1. There is no significant difference on the application of educational indices in promoting peace building and security development. 2. There is no significant difference in government utilization of the potentialities of counselling centres on the challenges of youth restiveness. 3. There is no significant difference on young peoples’ perception of counselling implications on security development in the Niger Delta. 5. Significance of the Study The research effort will be of significance to promoting regional peace in the Niger Delta as it will aid educators on the modalities to peace building and security development. The research will be of significance as its finding will promote reforms directed towards enshrining the mechanism of peace building through peace education. It will enable International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2018, 8(2): 17-21 19 young people of schooling age to embrace peace initiatives and peace building and promote security development in the region. The professional counselor will help to plan, co-ordinate referral, carry out orientation and placement services to help find learners dexterity, interest ability and potentialities which will place them high on their desired job/career. These attribute will enable young people to make well informed decisions, encourage the frustrated and low-esteem to re-molding high esteem character, attain high sense of control and become law-abiding. 6. Methodology and Procedure The research study adopted the descriptive survey research design to examine professional counselling perspective on peace building and security development. One hundred and fifty (150) students from three institutions namely College of Education, Warri Delta State, College of Education, Afaha-Nsit Akwa-Ibom State and Isaac Adaka-Boro College of Education, Sagbama Bayelsa State were sampled for the study. A questionnaire comprising twenty (20) items was designed in line with the Likert Scale and was validated by three (3) certified and practicing professional counselors. The reliability index was measured using the test re-test method and the inferential statistics was employed as the analytical tool. 7. Data Analysis The data collected for the study were analyzed using the chi-square analytical tool at 0.05 alpha level. The inferential statistics helped to test the hypotheses for the purpose of drawing valid research conclusions. Chi-square value: X2= Σ(o – e)2 e Where x2 = chi-square o = observed frequency e = Expected frequency Decision Rule: Reject null hypothesis if calc. value of (x2) is greater than the critical value and uphold if otherwise. The degree of freedom (df) is = (r-1)(c-1). 8. Hypotheses Testing The hypothetical questions raised from the reviewed literature were tested at 0.05% alpha levels of significance. Hypothesis I: There is no significant difference on the application of educational indices in promoting peace building and security development. Table 1. Analysis on Significant Difference between Educational Indices, Peace Building and Security Development Variables N Education Indices (Counselling Therapy) 80 Peace building mechanism & security development 70 Mean (x) SD DF 23.1 4.01 19.41 5.22 148 Calc. t Crit. t 0.96 2.47 Sign. 0.05% Remark Accepted Table 1 showed that, there is no significant difference between on the application of educational indices/counseling therapy on peace building and security development. As indicated on the table, the crit. T of 2.47 was found higher than the calc. t of 0.96 which gave credence to the stated hypothesis and was accepted. Hypothesis 2 Table 2. There is no significant difference in government utilization of the potentialities of counselling centres on the challenges of youth restiveness Variables Potentialities of counselling centres Youth Restiveness N Mean (x) SD DF Calc. t Crit. t Sign. 80 24.80 5.10 70 23.56 5.06 148 3.01 2.47 0.05% Remark Rejected Data in table 2 showed a respondents index difference between the two variables with calc. t of 3.01 above the crit. t of 2.47. This show there existed a significant difference therefore the hypothesis was rejected. Hypothesis 3 Table 3. There is no significant difference on young people’s perception of counseling implication on security development in the Niger Delta Variables N Mean (x) SD DF Calc. t Crit. t Sign. Perception of counselling implication (outcomes) 80 35.04 6.70 Security development in Niger Delta 70 28.21 5.82 148 0.67 2.47 0.05% Remark Accepted 20 Oghiagbephan A. Daniel: Counselling for Peace Building and Security Development in the Niger Delta The analysis on table 3 showed calc. t of 0.67 below the crit. T of 2.47 at 0.05% level of significance. The hypothesis was upheld in accordance to the responses from the respondents. in captive by ignorance, prejudice and pre-modal interests which only educated counselling including seminar, workshops, conferences and short courses can truly liberate. 9. Discussion of Findings The analysis and findings of this study are widely corroborated by cited authors over the arching need to restore the pride of peace once enjoyed across the Niger Delta region. Table one showed no significant difference existed on the application of educational indices such as therapeutic counseling interventions against security development. The calc. t value of 0.96 was below the crit. T value of 2.47. This showed the respondents acknowledge the contributions of practicing professional counselors and the role they occupied in conflict and dispute resolution as well their relevance on peace building across the Niger Delta region. This is supported by an avalanche of studies and theories (Agbajor, 2016). The second table on hypothesis two with calc. t value of 3.01 above the crit. t value of 2.47 was rejected as a result of a respondents index difference between the two variables and its reflection of significant differences. Thus, revealing the non reflection of counselling centres in similar conflict resolution by government at all level hence their limited contribution to conflict resolution in the society. Table three showed that the calculated table value of 0.67 is less than the critical table value of 2.47 hence the hypothesis was upheld. This indicated the young people who have been through the school system understand the immense contribution counseling posses to dispute resolution if given a place by relevant authorities, as such can stimulate the effort on peace building in the region. 10. Implication for Counelling 11. Conclusions The absence of National dignity, values and mores among young people has retarded the effectiveness of the educational system in impacting positively on the worsening national security. This can be seen by the restiveness in expected that consolidating on democratic achievements through good governance, improved national security, access to employment opportunities and the rule of law, the Niger Delta and the Nation at large shall witness rapid growth. 12. Recommendations Based on the findings from the research effort, it therefore recommend as follows: 1. Government at all levels should organize seminars on the importance of moral values and promote ethnic harmony across the region and Nigeria in General. 2. Government at all levels should establish counselling centres as core values of governance across the three tiers of government. 3. School heads in the region should fashion into the school curriculum measures that will promote regional security and peace building in order to enhance co-existence among the ethnic groups. 4. Government at this region should involve professional counseling to organize seminar, workshops, conferences and short courses on character molding and peace building. Counselling stand the gap to provide positive realignment or remediation to those deviants, hoodlums who promote violence and medle in anarche. The out grow of ineptitude across different ethnicity in the country could hamper national development. The proliferation of impunity gave birth to people of low mental abilities and wrong values ascending leadership roles. This affects academic zeal, diligence and uprightness, dignity of labour, honesty and excellence which are the bedrock values of personality. On this note counselling implication is that only through proper education in ability, skills and orientation can the mind be fully liberated and the nascent potentialities in the individuals be fully harnessed for the benefit of the society. Counsellors in the face of myriad challenges confronting the Niger Delta serves as handy tool for correcting the ills which are resulted in threat to regional and national security, corruption and outright show of disregard for honour and human lives, values and integrity. The absence of these mores have place most young people REFERENCES  Agbajor, T.H. (2016), Fundamentals of Guidance and Counselling. Cee-Emmyikye Ventures, Delta State.  Akin, I. (2008), The Utility of Close-Circuit Television (CCTV) in Intelligence Gathering by Security Operatives in Nigeria. Proceeding of Conference on Intelligence Security, Lagos.  FRN (2014), “National Policy on Education (4th Edition) Abuja, Federal Ministry of Education”.  NESCO (2011), Education is key to lasting peace development from http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/multimedia/11Q/ED/GMR /pdf/gmr/2011/mdcj2011facts-and-figureEN.pdf.  Oghojefa, E.M. (2015), Utilization of Peace Education: Imperatives for Sustainable Educational Development. Journal of Science Educators, Nigeria Delta University, Wilberfore Island Bayelsa State. NDU Publishers. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2018, 8(2): 17-21 21  Oghojefa, E.M. & Imonivwerha, P. (2014), “School Curriculum Imperatives for Sustainable Educational Development. Proceeding of International Conference on Global Research Development” and Challenges in the 21st Century. GIRD Publishers, Warri.  Okorafor, S. (2012), “Democracy and National Security: Employing the Synergy for Good Governance”. Journal of Research and Development: Port Harcourt, West and Solomon Publishing Co. Ltd.  UNCED (2010), UN. Conference on Environmental Sustainability Development. A Challenge to Global Community at http://www.grdc.org/susdr/povety.html.
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