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The relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of orphan middle school students in Kenya

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2019, 9(3): 39-46 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijpbs.20190903.02 Relationship between Self-efficacy and Academic Performance among Orphaned Secondary School Students in Kenya Patricia A. Oyuga1, Pamela A. Raburu2, Peter J. O. Aloka2,* 1Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science & Technology, Bondo, Kenya 2Department of Psychology & Educational Foundations, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science & Technology, Bondo, Kenya Abstract The study investigated the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Kenya. The research was anchored on Social Cognitive theory. The study adopted concurrent triangulation research design within the mixed method approach. The target population comprised 300 orphaned students and 35 principals. A total of 300 orphaned students in secondary schools and 11 principals were selected through saturated and simple random sampling strategies respectively to form the representative sample. Students’ questionnaires, document analysis and interview guide for the head teachers were the main data collection instruments. In ensuring reliability, a pilot study was carried out using 75 students from and 5 head teachers from Rarieda Sub-Country who were not part of the representative sample in the study. Validity of research instrument was ensured by the university lecturers’ and supervisors’ expert judgment. A reliability coefficient of 0.891 was reported. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and regression analysis) while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. SPSS version 24 was used to conduct the analyses. Study findings revealed a significant weak (small) positive relationships between self-efficacy belief and academic performance (r = .276). Results from the interviews revealed that self-efficacy is a vital component of academic performances amongst orphan students in Bondo Sub-County. Ministry of Education and other stakeholders should understand the plight of orphans and provide them with improved services like trained counsellors who would be able to provide orphaned students with appropriate counselling services in relation to self-regulation skills. Keywords Academic self-efficacy, Academic performance, Orphans, Secondary school, Students Kenya 1. Introduction Self-efficacy beliefs are a better indicator of success than actual ability has stimulated research in many academic disciplines (Bandura, 1997). The present study provides evidence to support this claim within an education context. Although studies investigating the self‐efficacy of students have found conflicting results on gender differences (Byrne et al., 2014), and prior learning at high school (Duff, 2004), the relationship of self‐efficacy to academic performance is generally supported (Multon et al., 1991). According to Dogan (2015), self-efficacy is about the belief in one’s ability to succeed especially within specific situations or accomplishment of certain tasks. Consequently, self-efficacy * Corresponding author: jairopeteraloka@yahoo.com (Peter J. O. Aloka) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ is another factor that is likely to be considered as a variable defining and determining academic performance. Self-efficacy refers to a student's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments (Bandura, 1977). Self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment (Bahmanabadi & Baluchzade, 2013). Self-efficacy beliefs can be described as the confidence one has in the ability to perform certain tasks and/or skills (Bandura, 1997). These beliefs may or may not reflect accurately a person's ability. Within an educational setting, we evaluate achievement in terms of academic success, for example, when students are able to pass a course. Potentially, even a very talented student with the ability to achieve at a high level may have low self‐efficacy beliefs, thereby reducing the chance of academic success (Bandura, 1997). Bandura (1989), states that self ‐ beliefs of efficacy can enhance or impair performance through their effects on cognitive, affective, or motivational intervening processes. The impact that self‐ efficacy beliefs, therefore, can have upon learning should not 40 Patricia A. Oyuga et al.: Relationship between Self-efficacy and Academic Performance among Orphaned Secondary School Students in Kenya be underestimated. Self‐efficacy beliefs and performance have been examined in a variety of contexts (Gunderson et al., 2012). Bouffard‐Bouchard et al. (1991) demonstrated that self ‐ efficacy beliefs and cognitive ability are independent variables of each other. Furthermore, they found that self ‐ efficacy beliefs impacted upon the learning environment for school age children, and students who were more self‐efficacious were able to perform at higher levels than those with lower levels of self ‐ efficacy beliefs, regardless of cognitive ability. 2. Theoretical & Literature Review The study was informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) refers to a psychological model of behaviour that emerged primarily from the work of Bandura (1977; 1986). Initially developed with an emphasis on the acquisition of social behaviours, SCT continues to emphasize that learning occurs in a social context and that much of what is learned is gained through observation (Bandura, 1977). SCT has been applied broadly to such diverse areas of human functioning as career choice, organizational behaviour, athletics, mental and physical health (Pajares, 1996). SCT also has been applied extensively by those interested in understanding classroom motivation, learning, and achievement (Zimmerman, 1994). One assumption of SCT concerns triadic reciprocality, or the view that personal, behavioural, and environmental factors influence one another in a bidirectional, reciprocal fashion. That is, a person's on-going functioning is a product of a continuous interaction between cognitive, behavioural, and contextual factors. Classroom learning is shaped by factors within the academic environment, especially the reinforcements experienced by oneself and by others (Bandura, 1986). At the same time, learning is affected by students' own thoughts and self-beliefs and their interpretation of the classroom context (Bandura, 2001). The present study derives the idea of academic performance being a function of reinforcements experienced by oneself. In this respect, the present study established how self-regulation skills, which are within oneself affect academic environment and achievement. Literature on academic self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement exist. For example, in a study by Li (2012), the relationship between social science students’ attitude towards research methods and statistics, self-efficacy, effort, and academic performances was examined. Li (2012) adopted self-administered questionnaire and a total of 153 students from Department of Applied Social Studies formed the representative sample. The study was conducted in the City University of Hong Kong. The study established that there is a positive correlation between all the four variables. In addition, the study employed a multiple regression analysis, which also showed that self-efficacy could significantly predict students’ effort. Even though the findings by Li (2012) are consistent with those of Loo Choy (2013), Thomas and Wagner (2013), Dogan (2015), Bahmanabadi and Baluchzade (2013), and Yang and Wang (2015), the study was mainly quantitative. Since the study only provided quantitative relationship between self-efficacy and performance, it did not offer opportunity for participants to have their expressions, opinions, and thoughts. As a result, the current study conducted both quantitative analysis and qualitative. In addition, Li (2012) concentrated on students that were taking only a specific line of subjects, that is, social sciences unlike in the current study where participants were involved in taking subjects as per the KCSE curriculum. In a different study, Motlagh, Amrai, Yazdani, altaib Abderahim, and Souri (2011) investigated the relation between self-efficacy and academic performance amongst high school students. The study used a total of 250 students. The 250 participants forming representative sample were selected based on multi-stage cluster sampling. Motlagh et al. (2011) employed the use of completed self-efficacy in addition to measuring achievement score grade point average in classes. The study then analyzed the data based on correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Motlagh et al. (2011) confirmed the findings by Feldman and Kubota (2015), Seaton et al. (2014), and Phan (2012) stating that self-evaluation, self-directing, and self-regulation, which are some of the components of self-efficacy, are correlated with academic performances. Findings showed that self-efficacy amongst high school students can be a good basis for enhancing academic performances. Motlagh et al. (2011) used mainly quantitative analysis; hence, did not explain qualitatively how self-efficacy can be used to improve on academic performances, which was the interest of the current study. Even though it is good for various stakeholders to understand the positive correlation between self-efficacy and academic performance, it is also important for the said persons to understand how the former affects the latter. Furthermore, while focusing on high school students, Motlagh et al. (2011) assumed that all students are equal when in real sense this is not true as a number of students should be treated as special interest. In another study, Komarraju and Nadler (2013) examined motivational orientations, cognitive-meta-cognitive skills, and resource management towards predicting students’ academic performances. A total of 407 undergraduates were used as a representative sample. In gathering data, Komarraju and Nadler (2013) used Motivated Strategies Learning Question, Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale, Achievement Goal Inventory, and self-reported grade point average. The research adopted the use of MANCOVA in which there was controlling for both age and sex. Findings by Komarraju and Nadler (2013) indicated that low self-efficacy students tended to believe that intelligence is innate and unchangeable whereas high self-efficacy students had the belief that intelligence is about mastery of goals, which is attainable through gaining of knowledge in addition to focusing on performance goals. Use of hierarchical multiple regression analysis by Komarraju and Nadler (2013) revealed that self-efficacy, effiort regulation, and help-seeking are some of the variables capable of explaining International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2019, 9(3): 39-46 41 variances in GPA amongst a number of students. Although the findings of Komarraju and Nadler (2013) form foundation for increasing academic performances of students, the study concentrated mainly on the relationships or correlations between self-efficacy and academic performance. In as much as it is very essential to understand how self-efficacy relates or correlates with academic performances, Komarraju and Nadler (2013) did not to explain how self-efficacy can be used in order to achieve specific academic targets. Apart from being mainly quantitative in nature, Komarraju and Nadler (2013) assumed that all students are and should be treated the same. Consequently, the present study applied both quantitative and qualitative investigations into the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance amongst orphaned secondary students in Kenya. Similarly, Honicke and Broadbent (2016) investigated the influence of self-efficacy on academic performance through a systematic review by integrating research studies done in the last 12 years focusing on relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance of university students. The study established that a number of studies had established a positive correlation between the two main variables of self-efficacy and academic performances. In addition, Honicke and Broadbent (2016) established that out of the eligible 59 papers, majority of the papers confirmed that academic self-efficacy moderately correlated with academic performances. What’s more, many of the reviewed articles had identified several other mediating and moderating variables. Some of the mediating and moderating variables identified included effort regulation, deeper processing strategies, and goal orientations. Having reviewed a number of articles, Honicke and Broadbent (2016) established that owing to paucity and longitudinal nature of reviewed studies, it would be essential for deeper study on the relationships amongst the various variables under investigation, which the current study took up and investigated how self-efficacy relates to academic performance. Shkullaku (2013) in another study explored gender differences in self-efficacy and academic performances within the Albanian students while focusing on two major universities in Tirana, Albania. In other words, other than just establishing how self-efficacy and academic performances correlate, Shkullaku (2013) went further ahead to look at the two correlations considering gender aspects. A total of 180 students, 102 females and 78 males, were used in order to gather data and information. These students were selected from first, second, and third levels of studies and a questionnaire was used to measure self-efficacy on one hand and on the other hand the grade point average of the first semester. The GPA of the first semester was used by researchers as proxy for academic performances. Using descriptive and inferential statistics via Pearson Correlation and t-test statistics, Shkullaku (2013) established that there was a significant difference between males and females in self-efficacy. The reviewed study by Shkullaku (2013) was purely quantitative implying that it only provided a relationship or correlation between self-efficacy and academic performances unlike the current study, which applied both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Zuffianò et al. (2013) study examined the contribution of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning and use the same to predict academic performances of students in junior secondary school. In addition, Zuffianò et al. (2013) aimed at establishing effects of previous academic performances, gender, socioeconomic status, intelligence, personality traits, and self-esteem of the students on their current academic performances or achievements. The study involved a total of 170 students that comprised of 87 being females and the mean age being 13.47 years. All participants were from a junior high school in Rome, Italy. On the basis of hierarchical regression analysis, the study established that there is unique contribution of self-regulated learning on academic performances and self-efficacy also has significant impact on self-regulated learning. Since it was a quantitative study, Zuffianò et al. (2013) did not offer explanations as to why the two variables are related through views, expressions, and opinions of the participants as it was in the current study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. In Singapore, Loo and Choy, (2013) examined the correlation of the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, emotional arousal) with academic performance. A 40-item survey measuring sources of mathematics self-efficacy was administered to 178 third-year engineering students. Academic performance, which includes mathematics module grades and cumulative grade point average (GPA) scores, were collated. The results of the study showed that self-efficacy sources were correlated with mathematics achievement scores as well as cumulative GPA of electronics-related engineering diplomas. The reviewed study focused on the engineering students in the university but not on the orphaned secondary school students. A sample of 178 is considered small as compared to the current study, which used a total of 300 orphan secondary school students to form a representative sample. In addition, unlike the reviewed study that only provided numerical relationships, the current study focused on both numerical and qualitative explanations as to why and how self-efficacy relates to academic performances. In another study, Chowdhury and Shahabuddin (2011) examined how self-efficacy, motivation and academic performance interact among students enrolled in an introductory marketing course in a private university of Bangladesh. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire from the students. Empirical results revealed that there are statistically positive correlations between self-efficacy and performance (r = .289), that is, students with high self-efficacy skills performed better than those with low self-efficacy. The reviewed study was done in a private university of Bangladesh but not on secondary schools as it was the case in the current study. In addition, the 42 Patricia A. Oyuga et al.: Relationship between Self-efficacy and Academic Performance among Orphaned Secondary School Students in Kenya study was quantitative in nature unlike in the current study where both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used in order to provide both numerical evidence as well as views, opinions, and perceptions of participants in respect to the topic under investigation. Ciftci (2011) in another study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and academic success. The reviewed study was applied to 250 preparatory level students at Gaziantep, Zirve, İnönü, Selçuk and Karatay Universities in 2010-2011 academic years. The data were collected through Self Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ) and Autonomous Learner Questionnaire (ALQ) and analyzed by SPSS 19.0. The analysis of the data revealed that there was a positive relationship between self-efficacy and academic success (r = .597 p > .01). The reviewed study focused on the university students and not on the secondary school orphans as it was in the current study. University students unlike secondary school students have their self-efficacy highly developed whereas the latter are still experiencing development, which make the findings from the former inaccurate when applied to the latter. Consequently, the present study focused on secondary school students. In addition, Tenaw (2013) investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and achievement for second year students in the fall of 2012 in Analytical Chemistry I (ACI) at Debre Markos College of Teacher Education (DMCTE). The self-efficacy survey and the ACI achievement test were completed by 100 students. The analysis of the data indicated that a significant relationship exists between self-efficacy and achievement (r = 0.385). In addition, the reviewed study focused on the college students and not on the secondary school orphans as it was the case in the current study. The quantitative nature of the reviewed study meant that participants could not give their opinions, expressions, and views unlike in the case of the current study where both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. Britner (2012) explored a study on science self-efficacy of African – American Middle school students by examining how motivation, achievement, gender, and gender orientation related. Findings of the study indicated that science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. The reviewed study did not specify the African students that were being focused unlike in the current study that specifically focused on the orphans in secondary schools. In addition, the reviewed study determined whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels and not the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance among secondary school students as was in the present study. Similarly, Carrol, Houghton, Wood, Hattie and Bower, (2007), investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance in Australian high school students. The sample consisted of 935 students aged 11 to 18 years from ten schools in two Australian cities. The Students’ Self-Efficacy Scale, Adapted Self-Report Delinquency Scale (Revised), and Students’ Academic Aspirations Scale were administered. Academic and social self-efficacy had positive and negative relationships, respectively, with academic aspiration and academic performance; however the relationship between academic aspiration and academic performance was not significant in the final model. The reviewed study focused on quantitative data; hence, weaknesses associated with such a design such as inability to provide an explanation as to why two or more variables are related were a problem. However, the current study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches in which the numerical analysis were augmented by the expressions, opinions, and views of participants. In Nigeria, Ogunmakin and Akomolafe (2013) investigated the role of academic self-efficacy, academic motivation and academic self-concept in predicting secondary school students’ academic performance. Two hundred and ninety eight students constituted the study’s sample. Descriptive research design correlational type was used in the reviewed study. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with relevant standardized instruments. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data collected. The results showed that academic self-efficacy, academic motivation and academic self-concept significantly predicted students’ academic performance. The reviewed study used quantitative approach lacked participants’ feelings and experiences whereas the current study used a mixed method design. Similarly, Motari, Ogoma and Misigo (2014) explored gender differences in self-efficacy and academic performance in mathematics and science subjects among Form Three secondary school students in Lugari District of Kenya. Data analysis was done using the t-test and ANOVA and findings revealed that students with higher levels of self-efficacy obtained higher academic performance scores than their counterparts who had lower levels of self-efficacy. However, reviewed study collected data through questionnaires and not both questionnaires and interview schedules as was in the case of the present study. With a mixed research approach, the current study unlike the reviewed study was able to give a superior comprehension of the exploration issue than both of each alone besides the fact that it picked up in broadness and profundity of comprehension and support, while counterbalancing the shortcomings innate to utilizing each approach without anyone else's input. In respect to establishing the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance, the following null hypothesis was tested using Pearson Product-Moment correlation. H0: There is no statistically significant relationship between academic self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2019, 9(3): 39-46 43 3. Research Methodology Research design This study used concurrent triangulation mixed research design which is used in collecting analyzing and combining both quantitative and qualitative data in a study in order to understand a research problem (Creswell & Plano Clark 2011). It is one phase mixed method design in which quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed during the same phase of the research process and are merged together into one interpretation (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). Triangulation design’s overall intent is to develop a better understanding of a topic by obtaining two different but complementary types of data (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). The 35 head teachers and 300 orphaned secondary school orphans in Bondo Sub-County were targeted as respondents in this study (CDEO’s report 2015). The target population was form four orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County from which representative sample was obtained. The reason for focusing on form four students is because based on the present curriculum, the academic performance of a student for four years is determined at the end of form four where all that has been learned through the years is tested. The sample size constituted 300 orphaned secondary school students and 11 head teachers. This study picked eleven schools from which the 11 head teachers were used as respondents. This was based on recommendation by Jwan (2010) stating that in any research with a known population 10% to 30% of the target population should be considered as appropriate. In this case, the study picked 30% of 35 schools, which are 10.5 ≈ 11 head teachers. Participants of the study The students’ questionnaire contained self-efficacy skills. The items were adapted from the Self Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ) by Ciftci, (2011). The researcher modified the SEQ and MSLQ by identifying the items that only focused on self-efficacy and included them in the Students’ Self-efficacy questionnaire, which assisted in gathering information and data towards measuring self-efficacy of the orphans that formed the representative sample (Appendix IV). The questionnaire adopted a 5-point Likert scale method whereby respondents had to respond to every statement using a structured format. The 5-point Likert scale entailed Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). To measure academic performance, document analysis of mock results of the orphans 2015 was used (Huertas et al., 2015) and identified the mean grades of every participant (Appendix V). Document analysis is a form of qualitative research in which documents are interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an assessment topic (Bowen, 2009). Analyzing documents incorporates coding content into themes similar to how focus group or interview transcripts are analyzed (Bowen, 2009). A rubric can also be used to grade or score document. In this case a mean grade of A was represented by 12 points whereas a mean grade of E was represented by 1 point (Appendix V). The reason for using mean grades for the MOCK exams is because it represented the academic performance of the participants in all subjects. Data collection procedures & analysis In this study, document analysis was considered as efficient and effective in gathering data because documents reviewed were manageable and practical resources. Documents are commonplace and come in a variety of forms, making documents a very accessible and reliable source of data. Obtaining and analysing documents was far more cost efficient and time efficient than conducting other research or experiments on performances of the orphaned secondary school students (Bowen, 2009). Documents reviewed were considered stable, “non-reactive” data sources, meaning that they can be read and reviewed multiple times and remain unchanged by the researcher’s influence or research process (Bowen, 2009). Document analysis was used because of the many different ways it supported and strengthened research. Document analysis was also used in providing background information and broad coverage of data, and therefore helpful in contextualizing the research within its subject or field (Bowen, 2009). The present study conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with principals, who had a picture of the performances of different sets of students including orphans who were the study subject (Kombo & Tromp, 2006). To determine the validity of the instruments, a pilot study was conducted in two schools from the neighbouring Rarieda Sub-County. The questionnaires were issued to the 75 students that formed the pilot study sample while the interview schedule was administered to 8 head teachers that formed the piloting sample. The schools that were chosen for pilot study were not included in the sample to be used in the study. In a sample of 75 orphan students from the neighbouring Rarieda Sub-Country public schools, the SRSQ was administered twice, separated by a period of 72 hours, for purposes of establishing the reliability. Test-retest reliability for the total general questionnaire was very high (r = .89, p < 0.0001). Descriptive statistical analysis was done using frequencies and percentages while the inferential statistical analysis involved using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The academic performance was also reported for each student and correlation determined between the various independent variables and academic performance. Hypotheses were tested at the 5% level of significance (p = 0.05). Null hypothesis was rejected when p-value < 0.05 and accepted when p-value > 0.05. Data from interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis which followed the principles of thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006). 4. Findings & Discussion In respect to establishing the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance, the following 44 Patricia A. Oyuga et al.: Relationship between Self-efficacy and Academic Performance among Orphaned Secondary School Students in Kenya hypothesis was tested using Pearson Product-Moment correlation with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. H0: There is no statistically significant relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County. Ha: There is statistically significant relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County. Rule for hypothesis testing states that the p-value of 0.05 was considered to either reject or accept the null hypothesis. In this respect, when the p-value ≤ (less than or equal to) 0.05, the null hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis accepted instead. On the other hand, if the p-value > (greater than) 0.05, then the null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypothesis rejected. The results of hypothesis testing are illustrated in the Table 1 below. Table 1. Correlations for Self-efficacy and Academic performance Academic performance of orphaned students Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Self-efficacy Skills .176** .005 300 **Significant at 5% Source: SPSS Output From Table 1, since p < 0.05, the null hypothesis was rejected confirming that the correlation between self-efficacy and academic performance is statistically significant (r = .176, p < 0.05). The Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient (r = .176 < 0.5) computed indicated that there was weak (Heeringa, West, & Berglund, 2010) positive correlation between self-efficacy learning strategies and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County. Since the p-value obtained is 0.005 < 0.05, the null hypothesis that stated “there is no statistically significant relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County” was rejected and alternative hypothesis was accepted implying that there is statistically significant relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County. In other words, it is evident that the orphan students believed that despite the many challenges they are involved in, effective time management skills are very essential in regards to enhancing their academic performances. Hence, it is acceptable to conclude that there were significant weak positive association between self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance. The findings are in agreement with Abdi (2012) who confirmed a significant correlation between the self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance. However, the findings are in contrast with the results by Abdi (2012) whose studies indicated no significant correlation between the self-efficacy beliefs and the test anxiety. Furthermore, the findings are in agreement with the study by Loo and Choy (2013) whose results of the study showed that self-efficacy sources were correlated with mathematics achievement scores as well as cumulative GPA of electronics-related engineering diplomas. More importantly, mastery experience was found to be the main predictor for academic performances of mathematics and related engineering modules. However, the study do not agree with Beck and Schmidt (2015), which demonstrated that a negative weak relationship between self-efficacy and resource allocation is not always maladaptive and, in fact, can lead to positive indirect effects on performance. Figure 1. Scatter-plot for Self-efficacy and Academic performance (Source: SPSS Output) International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2019, 9(3): 39-46 45 The scatter plot for the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance is illustrated in the following Fig. 1. Scatter plot implies that the variables are clustered around the line of best fit. In addition, the scatter plot implies that both variables move in the same direction. In other words, as one variable increases, the other variable also increases. As one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases. These findings are consistent with those of Komarraju and Nadler (2013) and Richardson et al. (2012) especially with regards to proportional relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance of students. However, the present study findings are inconsistent with Schmidt and DeShon (2010), which indicated that self-efficacy was negatively related to subsequent performance under conditions of high ambiguity but was positively related to performance when performance ambiguity was low. Qualitative results indicated that self-efficacy refers to a student's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviours necessary to produce specific performance attainments (Principal, 3). In addition, Principal, 4 noted “self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behaviour, and social environment”. Principal, 3 noted: I have seen many orphans face problems after losing their parents to the extent that some of them want commit suicide. This is because most orphans feel like they do not have self-esteem and this affects their performance (Principal, 3) Similarly, principal, 10 noted: My observation is that total orphans seem to hate themselves due to life challenges and in most cases this happens because these orphans believed that they can never perform in class work hence lack confidence in competing with their peers and this has affected the performance of orphans in secondary schools. In addition, students with positive self-efficacy skills show high performance in their studies as compared to those orphans with negative self-efficacy skills who show low performance in their studies (Principal, 10) In addition, Principal, 2 stated: I have the opinion that orphans do fail in most cases which should not be and this happens because orphans tend to believe that they do not have ability to compete with their counterparts. Again, students do not demonstrate confidence to perform well in their academics due to low self-esteem (Principal, 2) These findings show that those orphans with low self-efficacy skills perform lower than their counterparts who have high self-efficacy skills. Furthermore, the findings are in agreement with the words echoed by Muola (2010) who emphasized that parents need to be aware of the importance of their role in their students’ academic performance motivation so that they can provide the necessary facilities at home. In addition, the findings concur with the findings by Shipitsyna, (2008) whose findings of the study points out to the importance of both parental and social influences on the development of students’ self-efficacy. However, the present study findings are consistent with Beattie, Woodman, Fakehy, and Dempsey (2016), indicating that when participants are provided with minimal performance feedback, their self-efficacy was negatively related to subsequent performance; when we provided more detailed feedback, self-efficacy was positively related to subsequent performance. 5. Conclusions & Recommendations The study has established is a positive relationship between self-efficacy belief and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-County. Different self-efficacy as highlighted in summary of findings have been identified as being used by students in enhancing their academic performances. As in the other cases, whereas majority of orphaned students in secondary schools have very high self-efficacy beliefs and skills that contribute towards their performances, there are other students with very low self-efficacy levels. Ministry of Education in general should understand the plight of orphans and provide them with improved services like trained counsellors who will be able to provide orphaned students with appropriate counselling services towards enhancing their self-efficacy as well as other self-regulating skills, which will then help in their academic performances while in school. REFERENCES [1] Abdi, H. M. (2012). The Role of Metacognitive and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Students' Test Anxiety and Academic performance. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences; Nov 2012, 6(12), 418 – 427. [2] Bandura, A., (1997). Self‐efficacy: The Exercise of Control. (Macmillan, London, UK). [3] Bandura, A., (1989), Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self‐efficacy, Developmental Psychology 25(5), 729– 735. [4] Bahmanabadi, S., & Baluchzade, F. (2013). 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