Comparison of thinking behavior integration between obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Applied Psychology 2012, 2(5): 77-82 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20120205.01 Comparison of Thought-Action Fusion in Peoples with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression Disorder Ghamari Kivi Hossein1,*, Mohammadipour rik Ne’mat2, Mikaeili Niloofar1 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Human Science, University of mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil province, Ir an 2M A in Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Human Science, University of mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil province , Iran Abstract Thought-Action Fusion (TAF) refers to the tendency to assume incorrect casual relationship between ones own thoughts and external reality, in witch, thoughts and actions are treated as equivalents. This construct is presence to development and maintenance of many psychological d isorders. The Aim o f p resent study is comparison TAF and its levels include moral and likelihood TAF, among Obsessive-Co mpulsive Disorder (OCD),Major Depression and normal groups. Thus three groups included 150 persons were selected by available sampling method in private and governmental psychiatric centers in Ardabil city, and then, they responded to Beck Depression Inventory, Padua Inventory and TAF scale. Data was analyzed using MANOVA. Results revealed that, there is significant differences between OCD and Major Depression groups with normal group in mo ral TAF(p <./.1), and likelihood TAF(p<./.1), but, there is no significant differences between OCD group and Major Depression group in moral TAF and likelihood TAF. The results indicated that, moral and likelihood TAF had equal levels in OCD and Major Depression Disorder, thus they could not differentiate OCD fro m Major Depression Disorder. Keywords Thought-Action Fusion, Obsessive Co mpulsive Disorder, Major Dep ressive Disorder 1. Introduction TAF refers to the belief that thoughts and actions are inextricably linked. In the TAF theory, thought and action are treated as equivalents.The contemporary TAF concept arose fro m Rach man’sand Salkovskis’theories and clin ical observations of patients with obsessional thinking, where it was noticed that OCD patients assume that a thought is like an action.Shafran, Thordarson, and Rachman, first formally introduced and investigated the concept. They developed a measure of TAF that has been incorporated into most subsequent research. TAF is a special two forms:1-Mora l TAF: is the belie f that unacceptable thoughts are morally equivalent to overt unacceptable actions. 2-Likelihood TAF: refers to the belief that certain thoughts cause particular events, or at least increase the likelihood of such events occurring. Two domains of likelihood TAF have been proposed: A: likelihood self, which refers to events occurring to oneself, and B: likelihood others, which refers to events occurring to others, as a consequence of one’s th o ug h ts . * Corresponding author: email@example.com (Ghamari Kivi Hossein) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved TAF concept has compiled since 1990 decades in OCD articles. Before, the researchers studied this concept as mag ical thinking. Magical thin king refers to beliefs that defy culturally accepted laws of causality. It has been argued to be a central cognitive feature of OCD[6,7]. Two major disorders that are widely associated with TAF considered are Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major depressive disorder. OCD is defined by two central phenomena: 1-Obsessions: obsessions are persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate and that cause marked an xiety or distress. 2- co mpulsions; compulsions as "repetitive behaviors (e.g. hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (e.g. praying, counting, repeating words silently) the goal of which is to prevent or reduce an xiety or distress, not to provide pleasure or gratification". Most obsessions involve thoughts about contamination, repeated doubts, a need to have things in a particular order, aggressive impulses, or sexual imagery, and the most co mmon co mpulsions involve cleaning and checking. Prevalence of this disorder is, about 2/5 percent in the lifetime. According to the DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosing a major depressive disorder one or both of the fo llo wing t wo required elements need to be present: Depressed mood, or Loss of interest or pleasure. It is sufficient to have either of these symptoms in conjunction with four of a list of other 78 Ghamari Kivi Hossein et al.: Comparison of Thought-Action Fusion in peoples with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and M ajor Depression Disorder symptoms, these include: 1-Feelings of overwhelming sadness or fear, or seeming inability to feel emot ion. 2-Marked decrease of interest in pleasurable activ ities. 3-Changing appetite and marked weight gain or weight loss. 4-Disturbed sleep patterns, either insomn ia or sleeping mo re than normal. 5-Changes in activity levels, restless or moving significantly slower than norma l. 6-Fatigue, both mental and physical. 7-Feelings of guilt, helplessness, anxiety, and/or fear. 8-Lo wered self-esteem. 9-Decreased ability to concentrate or make decisions. 10-Thinking about death or suicide. Imp roper d rug or alcohol use is not a diagnostic symptom, but often acco mpanies and may be a causal factor in major depressive. Thought–Action Fusion (TAF) is one of a number of cognitive variables that have been extensively researched in relation to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders in recent years. The impetus for the increasing attention paid to cognitive constructs in OCD has been dissatisfaction with the traditional concept of OCD as a condition in wh ich co mpulsions develop with the main purpose of alleviating an xiety. Clinical experience and research have repeatedly indicated that underlying beliefs and appraisals are often intervening factors between obsessions and compulsions and those they often play a ro le in maintaining OCD. Review of researches about TAF show that, TAF is one of the fundamental cognitive bias that is play fundamental ro le in the development and maintenance of obsessivecompulsive disorder .[9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18]. Small to med iu m correlations between total scores on the Thought–Action Fusion Scale(TAFS); and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compu lsive Inventory (MOCI);have been consistently found (between ./ 20 and ./38; e.g.,[9,11,12,13,1 4,15,16]). A similar magnitude of relat ionship appears to exist for the association between TAF scale scores and the Paduaand Padua revisedscales[6,11,14]. Correlations between each of the TAF subscales and obsessive-compulsive symptoms also appear to fall within this small to mediu m range[5,12,14]. Previous studies have found that TAF is re lated to not only OCD, but also to other disorders such as Major depressive, Panic, Generalized An xiety Disorder, Social Phobia [19,20.21], Schizophrenia, Schizotypy, and also with variety features such as inflated sense of responsibility and thought suppression[15,16,24],intrusion,and guilt [9,26], relationship shown. TAF appears to be related to depression in both adolescents and adults. However, the significant correlations between TAF and depression have typically been small to med iu m in magnitude, (r=./ 42; in an adolescent sample, r=./ 33; r=./38, r=./ 15, r=./ 10 to ./42). Shafran and her co lleagues, and Rassin and his colleagues[12,14] have shown that TAF-Likelihood was more strongly associated with obsessionality than TAF-Morality, and depression mo re related to TAF-Morality. Abramowit z and his colleagues found that only TAF moral (r=./22), but not TAF-likelihood-other (r= -./.5) or TAF-likelihood-self (r= -./.5) were correlated with depression. These findings suggest that TAF moral may be more d irectly related to depressive symptoms than TAF likelihood, which is perhaps more related to an xiety. In contrast to Shafran and her colleagues, and Rassin and his colleagues[12,14], Yorulmaz and his colleagues in Turkish samples suggested as compared to TAF-Likelihood, TAF-Morality scores seemed to be more strongly correlated with obsessive–compulsive symptoms. They attributed these differences to cultural differences and relig ious beliefs of their country people. A little research is done in Iran, with thought–action fusion topic. A research with patients with obsessive compulsive disorder was shown, between symptoms of OCD and thought–action fusion exists the positive and significant correlation, and sub Scale of likelihood-other TAF,is the best predictor of Co mpulsions and the cluster of checking symptoms and sub Scale of likelihood-self TAF, is the best predictor of obsessions and the cluster of doubting s y mp to ms [2 7]. Another study showed, that among TAF beliefs and the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder exists a significant positive relatio n s h ip [2 8] . Also another study in the University, with student samples, which showed subscales of TAF to predict the main symptoms of OCD. Since the TAF is assumed one of the cognitive biases involved in Major depressive Disorder[9,12,19,21] ,and Obsessive-Compu lsive Disorder[5,7,12,14],and these two disorders, are respectively, third and fourth most common psychiatric diagnoses, and because of the importance today of cognitive therapy have in the treat ment or reduce symptoms of OCD and depression, so that Zucker and his colleagues research shown, even short and simp le educational interventions (providing simple messages of anti-TAF),can be effective in treat ment and reduce an xiety and willingness to neutralize. Thus this indicated that we need to investigate TAF in OCD and Major depressive Dis o rd er. Considering that research done in this area, does not clearly exp ression relationship between TAF and its various types to Psychopathology such as OCD and Major depressive, and on the other hand there is very few published Researches in our country with subject of TAF, therefore, this study want to answer to the questions are the fo llo wing: 2. Method 2.1. Subjects In the present study, we selected 50 outpatients (10 Males and 40 Females) with Obsessive-Co mpulsive Disorder and 50 outpatients (8 Males and 42 Females) with Major depression Disorder and 50 normal persons (10 Males and 40 International Journal of Applied Psychology 2012, 2(5): 77-82 79 Females) by availab le sampling method in psychiatric private and governmental center in Ardabil city. These individuals was searching pharmacotherapies, referred to psychiatrists and had received Major depression disorder and Obsessive-Compu lsive Disorder (More examp les of OCD, were having compulsions such as washing and checking) diagnosis from Psychiatrists. Their disease duration was fro m 1 to 3 years and their ages range was between 16 to 38 years. Control group was selected of students and fellows patients who had similar situations with the participating groups and based on studies performed, was not psychiatric disorder and never had to see a psychiatrist. In this study were the only people who have no history of psychiatric drugs and for the first time referred to a psychiatrist. Written consent was obtained from subjects. 2.2. Procedure Participants after diagnosis by psychiatrists, Were interviewed based on criteria for DSM -IV-TR clinical interviews by clinical psychologists to confirm the diagnosis. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder responded to Padua Inventory and Thought-action fusion scale and patients with depression disorder, responded to Beck Depression Inventory and Thought-action fusion scale. The control group only responded to the Thought-action fusion s cale. checking compulsions(CHCK),obsessional thoughts of harm to self/others(OTAHSO)and obsessional impulses to harm self/others (OTAHSO).All items are scored on a 0(not at all) to 4(very much) scale with a total score range of 0-156.Scores for the 5 sub-scales are calculated by summing the appropriate items. MacDonald and De Silva were obtained Padua reliability coefficient between ./ 76 to ./ 96 and its internal consistency./96. Marino and his colleagues, were found the Padua inventory Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ./ 93. In this study, Cronbach's alpha coefficient Was obtained ./ 78. 2.3.3. Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) (BDI; ). This is a 21-item measure that is widely used to assess somatic, affective, and behavioral sy mptoms of depression. Scores on the BDI range fro m 0 (no symptoms) to 63 (very severe symptoms). The sound psychometric properties of the scale are supported by an extensive literature. In this study, Cronbach's alpha coefficient ./ 91Was obtained. 3. Results After data collection, data analy zed by SPSS (16 v ers io ns ). Descriptive data fro m this study are shown in Table 1: 2.3. Measures Participants completed the following self-report measures during their assessment: 2.3.1. Thought-action fusion scale (TAFS) (TAFS;). This is a 19-item self-report measure of the tendency to fuse thoughts and actions. It contains 12 items that assess moral TAF (e.g. “Having a blasphemous thought is almost as sinful to me as a blasphemous action”); three items that assess likelihood-self TAF (e.g. “If I think of myself being in a car accident this increases the risk that I will have a car accident”); and four items that assess likelihood-other TAF (e.g. “If I thin k of a relative/friend losing their job, this increases the risk that they will lose their job). Each item is rated on a scale fro m 0 (disagree strongly) to 4 (agree strongly). The instrument’s psychometric properties have been described by Shafran et al. and Yo rulmaz et al. between ./85 to./96. In this study, Cronbach's alpha coefficient Was obtained ./ 82. 2.3.2. Padua Inventory - Washington State University Rev is io n (P I-W S U R) (PI-WSUR;). This inventory is revision of the original Padua inventory, that included 39 items and 5 subscales. This inventory is a self-report measure that designed by Burns and his colleagues. The instru ment provides 5 sub-scales: contamination obsessions and washingcompulsi ons(COWC),dressing/grooming co mpulsions (DRGRC) , Table 1. Mean and standard deviation of morality and Likelihood TAF in three groups Groups Major Depression Disorder (MDD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Control Tot al Major Depression Disorder(MDD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Control Tot al Moral TAF Likelihood TAF Mean SD N 31/62 8/53 50 30/62 8/36 50 24/68 11/44 50 28/97 9/97 150 14/96 5/24 50 14/84 6/45 50 8/.8 5/78 50 12/62 6/64 150 The review of test research hypotheses multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used, which are as fo llo ws . The results of Bo x test for the ho mogeneous matrix of variance - covariance, in ./56 is not significant, in other words, the matrices of variance - covariance are h o mo g en eo us . The results of MANOVA Significant test are shown in Table 2. Table 3 summarizes the in formation in the mult ivariate analysis of variance test (MANOVA), for study differences of TAF levels in the groups. Refer to the table, it is clear that the criterion variables ethic groups in TAF (TAFm) and likelihood TAF (TAFl) have a significant difference. 80 Ghamari Kivi Hossein et al.: Comparison of Thought-Action Fusion in peoples with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and M ajor Depression Disorder Effect Group Source Corrected Model Int ercept Group Moral TAF Likelihood TAF Table 2. The result s of MANOVA Significant t est Test Value F Hypothesis df Error df Sig. Wilks Lambda ./723 12/82 4 292 ./… Table 3. Test s of Bet ween-Subject s Effect s Dependent Variable Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Moral TAF 1407/453 2 703/727 7/711 ./..1 Likelihood T AF 1550/773 2 775/387 22/641 ./… Moral TAF 125918/107 1 125918/107 1/380 ./… Likelihood T AF 23914/907 1 23914/907 698/305 ./… Moral TAF 1407/453 2 703/727 7/711 ./..1 Likelihood T AF 1550/773 2 775/387 22/641 ./… Table 4. T ukey post hoc test for determining the location of group differences I group J group Mean of Differences Std. Error Sig. MDD OCD 1/.. 1/91 ./86 MDD Control 6/94 1/91 ./..1 OCD MDD -1/.. 1/91 ./86 OCD Control 5/94 1/91 ./..6 Control MDD -6/94 1/91 ./..1 Control OCD -5/94 1/91 ./..6 MDD OCD ./12 1/17 ./99 MDD Control 6/88 1/17 ./… OCD MDD -./12 1/17 ./99 OCD Control 6/76 1/17 ./… Control MDD -6/88 1/17 ./… Control OCD -6/76 1/17 ./… %95 Confidence Interval Lower Upper -3/52 5/52 2/41 11/46 -5/52 3/52 1/41 10/46 -11/46 -2/41 -10/46 -1/41 -2/65 2/89 4/10 9/65 -2/89 2/65 3/98 9/53 -9/65 -4/10 -9/53 -3/96 To determine the location of group differences, post hoc Tukey test was used and the results are presented in Table 4. Table 4 shows that significant differences exists between groups OCD with normal control group and major depression disorder group with normal control group in both TAF variable(Moral TAF and Likelihood TAF), and this difference is significant in level ./.1. However, there is no significant differences between groups OCD and major depression disorder group in Moral TAF and Likelihood TAF variab les. 4. Discussion The results of this study indicate that, does not exist significant differences between patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and major depression disorder in TAF, but in comparison major depression disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder patients with norma l group, can be seen significant differences in in the trend of amount between them. This finding is somewhat consistent with research Abramowit z and his colleagues; Shafran and her colleagues and Rassin and his colleagues , which have reported there is no significant difference of moral TAF, in the obsessive compulsive disorder and depression groups. However, their study indicated that there are differences between OCD and depression groups in likelihood TAF so OCD group have high levels of TAF than group depression group. But in the present study, the OCD and major depression in both TAF variables is not significantly different fro m each other. These differences may be due to differences in the samp le because of their studies, students who formed the sample, but the present study, patients seeking medical treat ment. Abramo wit z and his colleagues, have noted that mo ral TAF is associated with general depression And they are not related to the specific abnormality of any of the samples (OCD, an xiety disorder, panic, social phobia and major depression). The present results indicate that thought-action fusion can not be used as a distinguishing aspect of the distinction between major depression disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Because the two different levels structures of TAF (ie. mo ral and likelihood TAF ), are the same in both disorders. So it seems, when a person is healthy and does not has any psychological disorder, the TAF have a lo wer, but people with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with normal subjects have higher levels of TAF. The differences are true in the two domains of moral and likelihood TAF. Thus the structure of TAF can not distinguish between patients with OCD and depression g ro u ps . In a general summary, we can say that it seems, thought-action function (TAF), is a form of cognitive distortions or biases, that may increase their sense of responsibility towards intrusions opinion and could be International Journal of Applied Psychology 2012, 2(5): 77-82 81 vulnerable as a factor for growth and development of obsessions[25,35], and many other anxiety disorders, depression, Sch izotypal, eat ing disorders and, ...[19,20,21,2 3,36], and this variab le is not merely specific in OCD, but can be seen in many other psychological disorders. Since the TAF making comp lex psychological disorders and therapeutic strategies have been applied,, and because of the importance of cognitive therapy to treat or reduce the symptoms of OCD and major depression, So that research Rassin and his colleagues , demonstrated, TAF was sensitive to psychotherapy and will be change during treatment. even Zucker and his colleagues, illustrated, short and simp le educational interventions (providing simp le messages of anti-TAF), can also effective to reduce and treatment an xiety and desires of people for neutralizat ion. For this reason, it seems more attention to the structures of the TAF in treatment interventions, particularly cognitive and cognitive - behavioral disorders associated with OCD and major depression, may have therapeutic benefits and ad v an tag es . in a Turkish sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1203-1214.  Hodgson, R. J., & Rachman, S. (1977). Obsessional-compulsive complaints. 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