Predictors of online advertising attitude
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(1): 7-12 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20130301.02 The Predictors of Attitude towards Online Advertising Ade line Kok Li-Ming1,*, Teoh Boon Wai2, Mazitah Hussin3, Nik Kamariah Nik Mat4 1Sunway University Business School, Sunway University, Petaling Jaya, 46150, M alaysia 2School of Communication, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, 47500, M alaysia 3Knowledge Link Sdn Bhd, Suite A603, Phileo Damansara II, Petaling Jaya, 46350, M alaysia 4Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara M alaysia, Sintok, 06010, M alaysia Abstract With the significant increase of the number of Internet users in Malaysia to 17.5 million users in 2011, on-line advertisers need to understand the consumers’ attitude towards on-line advertising better. Thus, the main aim of this research paper is to study the predictors of consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. Respondents were chosen from students studying in private education institutions in Malaysia since past studies indicate that most of these online users are young consumers. Three constructs have been identified to pred ict consumers attitude toward online advertising which are usability, trust and information. The research approach adopted in this study is a survey method using purposive sampling. The data was collected through self-ad ministered distribution and received 207 valid responses. The findings of this research reveal that all the three predictors which are usability, trust and in formation had positive significant influence on consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. Keywords Online Advertising, Consumers Attitude, Predictors 1. Introduction Online advertising has gained increased popularity with more people spending time online. It is therefore relevant to understand consumers’ attitudes toward online advertising. The number of internet users continues to grow in Malaysia. According to Dato' Seri Utama Dr. Rais Yatim, the Information, Co mmun ications, and Culture Minister, as of April 2011 there were 17.5 million Internet users in Malaysia. Online advertising started with mere websites which was pictured as online brochures. It has grown to a wide range of tools over the years such as blogs and social network. Today the internet is an important tool in the mass med ia where it is used as a global co mmunication tool for transferring and exchanging knowledge, goods and services across global boundaries. Besides the upward trend, one of the main reasons for its major growth is the incentive fro m the Malaysian government to encourage Malaysians to be more internet savvy. The Nielsen Mobile Insights Malaysia research showed that 20-24 years old group was spending most time on the Internet. As such, it is imperat ive to conduct a study to understand young consumers’ attitude toward online ad v ertis in g . Even though online users have increased but the influence * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Adeline Kok Li-Ming) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved of online advertisements towards forming positive purchase intentions needs to be studied to assist advertisers in using online advertisements effectively in their marketing campaigns. Those who go online in Malaysia are main ly for social networking and instant messaging. The emphasis of most research on online advertising had been on the advertiser rather than the consumer. Online advertising is very different fro m tradit ional advertising as consumers have control over when and how much online advertising content that they want to be exposed to. Therefore, this study is conducted to understand online consumers’ attitude in order to encourage them to increase their exposure to online ad v ertis in g . In order to understand online consumers’ attitude, the main research objective for this study is to identify the predictors of consumers’ attitude towards online advertising. Marketers and advertisers will find this study relevant. By understanding online consumers’ att itude, the advertisers can make the necessary efforts to increase consumers’ exposure to online advertising. The results of this study could assist advertisers in planning and designing their online advertisements by considering the relevant predictors. Effect ive planning of online advertising will help reduce consumers who find online advertisements repulsive. This would provide a friendlier online platform. Besides ma rketers, this study is also useful to government and non-government agencies in planning and designing their online advertising as these agencies also use online advertising in their cause related marketing. 8 Adeline Kok Li-M ing et al.: The Predictors of Attitude towards Online Advertising 2. Literature Review Berthon et. al. pioneered the research on online advertising. Follo wing suit, there were many other researchers that continued to study on online advertising. The extent of this type of research is highly diverse and includes the online advertising effect iveness, comparison between traditional and online advertising, online advertising interactivity, branding and online ads and also attitude toward online advertising. There were also some studies that researched on consumer responses toward online advertising. Ducoffe in his study found that online advertising is perceived as valuable, informat ive, entertaining and important. Gordon and De Lima-Turner found that consumers favor online advertising that is entertaining and in their study they also found that online advertising is not a good selling tool but should be used to build favorable brand attitude. Schlosser, Shavitt and Kanfer in their study found that consumers prefer online advertising that were informat ive but less entertaining and do not encourage them to make purchases. There were also studies that found that consumers disliked online advertising. In GVU’s World Wide Web 10th User Survey, they found that consumers did not like online advertising. One of the main reasons for the dislike was that they found consumers felt that online advertising took a long time to download. Mehta and Sivadas in their study of news group users also had negative attitudes toward online advertising. Another study on young consumers was conducted by Calisir. He found that consumers like online advertising because it was good as a source of information but it was less effective for communicating brand image. In a mo re recent study, Ha, John, Janda and Muthaly, found that online advertising is crucial for organisations to retain cu sto mers . Attitude toward the online advertising is the consumers’ view toward online advertisements. Consumers’ attitude toward online advertising is the direct human reflection toward the online advert ising, wh ich co mprise the web content and format. These include hedonics, utilitarian, and interesting content of online advertising. After exposing and attending to online advertising, consumers could either form positive or negative attitude towards the ad. Ducoffe in his research found that entertainment, informat ion and irritation in fluenced attitudes toward online advertising. Entertain ment and irritation were affective and informat ion was cognitive that influenced consumer’s judgement on online advertising. Other researchers brought on another important factor which was behavioural experiences that would influenced consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. Cho and Leckenby, measured consumer response whether cognitive or affective through interactiv ity, involvement and trust that consumers have towards online advertising. Consumers believe that interactivity take p lace when online users are willingly exposed to the online ad v ertis in g  . Wang, Sun and Thompson investigated the relationships between consumers’ belief toward online advertising, attitudes toward online advertising and consumer behavioral in Ch ina, Ro mania and U.S. In their research, they found that all five belief factors which include in formation, entertain ment, economy, credib ility and value corruption were significant predictors of att itude toward online advertising. In this research, two of these factors which are information and credibility will be studied in the context of young Malaysian consumers. 3. Theoretical Underpinning of Study The underlying model of this study is the technology acceptance model created by Davis in 1986. Th is model assists in predicting and exp laining the online users’ behaviour. This model sets a nu mber of features that influence consumers’ decision. The Technology Acceptance Model also deals with the when and how consumers will use informat ion technology. According to Davis, consumers’ behavioural intentions, attitude, perceived usefulness of the system, and perceived eas e of the s ystem will influenced the consumers’ usage of the technology system. This model a lso suggests that exterior factors influence intention and actual use act as a go-between with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Lee, Cheung, & Chen in their study found that perceived usefulness and perceived enjoy ment impacted students’ attitude toward intention to use online based learning program. In this research, they established that perceived ease of use was not related with attitude. This model is commonly chosen to study online consumer’s attitudes. In this study, the technology acceptance model is applied as online advertising is a type of technology and in this research the different factors that influence consumers’ attitudes towards online advertising which are usefulness, trust and information are investigated. This model will assist in understanding how consumers accept technology and form attitudes toward particular system and in this cas e is online advertising. 4. Research Framework The framework for this study relies on the models developed by Wang, Sun and Thompson and Lodorfos, et.al. They developed a model assessing beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral responses toward online advertising in three countries. Whereby, Lodorfos, et.al developed a model depicting e-consumers’ attitude and behavior in the online commodit ies market. These models have been used in the past to test consumer’s attitude towards online advertising and commodities market. The constructs usability, trust and information will be used in this study to test hypotheses. Usability is seen as an International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(1): 7-12 9 important element in web site functionality. Time saving, convenience, attractive, ease of use, loading speeds and informat ion structure are some of the reasons on why consumers opt for accessing informat ion online. This is supported by past studies where web usability is defined as the ability to find one’s way around the web, to locate desired informat ion, to know what to do next and, very importantly, to do so with minimal effort. In developing an information system, usability is one of the important quality criteria. Web users are very concern about online transaction security which lin k to their personal informat ion. They are worried in case of breach of informat ion as well as misuse of their personal and private information. Trust ele ment is very important in any online transaction and it cannot be underestimated. Online marketers have to ensure that proper infrastructure, security features, management of web site and their reputation are in place to gain consumers trust. This would bridge the gap of insisting on credibility or integrity credentials of online marketers. In marketing, advertising has been justified to serve as informat ion provider. This is supported by Kwan, & Eze who highlighted the important role of advertising in providing product informat ion. So me researchers stressed that advertising relayed product information in creating consumer awareness. These findings make sense in term of confirming the marketplace efficiencies in partnering products being offered by producers with consumer’s needs. Product informat ion would affect consumers’ att itude towards advertising. The up-to-date product informat ion, newly product launched, and promotions will keep consumers informed. Us ab ility Tru s t Co n s u mers ’ attitude toward online ad v ertis in g Information Figure 1. Theoretical Framework Fro m the research model, the hypotheses of the research are developed as follows:- H1: Usability has positive influence on consumer’s attitude towards online advertising H2: Trust has positive influence on consumer’s attitude towards online advertising H3: Info rmation has positive influence on consumer’s attitude towards online advertising 5. Methodology A survey based data collection method was employed in this study. The survey on consumer’s attitude towards online advertising was conducted through a structured and standardized close ended questionnaire and data was collected using a Likert -7 point scale. The main purpose of a survey is to estimate, with significant precision, the percentage of population that has a specific attribute by collecting data fro m a s mall portion of the total population. The study identifies three antecedents of attitude towards online advertising which are (1) usability (2) trust and (3) informat ion. Three education institutions have been selected using purposive sampling approach. 207 students were selected to participate in this study. The response rate was 100% as it was a self administered. The respondents were carefully selected among undergraduates who are studying market ing and business as part of their majoring program. Thus, they would have the knowledge and understanding about online advertising. The questionnaire was divided into two sections, where Section A handles the demographic related questions and Section B requires the participants to answer questions about their perception on usability, trust and information related to online advertising. The dataset were keyed in into SPSS version 19. The data were analy zed using reliability factor analysis and regression analysis. 6. Findings In total, females outnumbered males by approximately 3:1. There were a total of 146 females and 61 males. The result shows that 52.7% of respondents spent more than 3 hours per day on internet and the highest percentage (53.6%) for monthly disposable allowance falls under less than Ringgit Malaysia 500 band. Reliab ility in quantitative data refers to the consistency of collected data. Maholtra suggested that “an alpha of 0.60 be the minimu m acceptable standard for demonstrating internal consistency’. The re liability of the three factors was tested and resulted in high Cronbach’s alpha for usability (0.70) and informat ion (0.84) but trust yielded low Cronbach’s alpha (0.47) which provided a reason for the spurious item to be removed. After remov ing item T2, the Cronbach’s alpha improved for trust as it yields to 0.68. As for Cronbach’s alpha for attitude towards online advertising is yield at 0.81. Analysis of factor analysis shows Kilmogorov Meyer Olkins (KM O) reading of 0.799 which indicate measurement sampling adequacy for factor analysis. The principal components method was emp loyed with varimax rotation. A loading of 0.30 and above were used to retain the items and none of the items were eliminated as they hold a factor loading of above 0.3 (U1=.765, U2=.777, U3=.614, U4=.470, T1=.633, T2=.529, T3=.829, T4=.844, I1=.844, I2=.818, I3=.783, I4=.703). 10 Adeline Kok Li-M ing et al.: The Predictors of Attitude towards Online Advertising Table 1. Regression Analysis Model Un st an dardized Co efficient s St an dardized Co efficient s t Sig B Std. Error Bet a X1:Usability .644 0.71 .508 9.130 .000 X2: Trust .241 .071 .190 3.421 .001 X3:Information .360 .071 .284 5.109 .000 Collinearity Statistics Tolerance 1.000 1.000 1.000 VIF 1.000 1.000 1.000 Correlation was conducted to detect mu lti-collinearity in this study. Correlat ion coefficient is said to be strong if it is 0.5 and above; 0.3 to 0.49 is med iu m relationship; and 0.1 to 0.29 is weak relationship. So in this case, the strongest correlation is between usability and the dependent variable. Trust had the weakest correlation (0.190) with the dependent variable. The inter-co rrelations among predictors are low hence mult i-collinearity did not arise in this situation. In this study, hypotheses 1 to 3 identify the predictors of attitudes toward online advertising. In testing the hypotheses 1 to 3, mu ltip le regression analyses were used. These hypotheses tested the impact of each independent variable – usability, trust and information on the dependent variable – consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. Hypothesis 1 was supported (t = 9.13, p < 0.001). Th is means that usability does have a positive influence on online consumer’s attitude toward online advertising. Hypothesis 2 was also supported as (t = 3.42, p < 0.01). Trust proves to have a positive influence on online consumer’s attitude toward online advertising. Finally hypothesis 3 is also supported (t = 5.11, p < 0.001). This shows that information does have a positive influence on online consumer’s attitude toward online ad v ertis in g . As indicated earlier in correlation result, mu lti-co llinearity is this study was not an issue. This is further strengthened by Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) of the variab les which show values of 1. Values of VIF that exceed 10 are often regarded as indicating multico llinearity. The independent variables which consist of usability, trust and information exp lained 34% variance in consumer’s attitude toward online advertising (R2 = 0.34). In the regression analysis it also show that usability was the most significant predictor of consumers’ attitude toward online advert ising (β = 0.51) followed by informat ion (β = 0.28). Trust had the lowest significance as predictor of consumers’ attitude toward online advertising (β = 0.19). The regression results are found in Table 1. 7. Discussion The findings in this study show that the three predictors – usability, trust and information significantly influence consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. These findings were consistent with results of past research. In this study, usability was found to be significantly affecting consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. In previous studies on Technology Acceptance Model by Davis have shown that perceptions of use have an effect on consumers attitudes towards technology based products or services. The Technology Acceptance Model assist in understanding how consumers accept technology and form attitudes toward particular system which in this context is online advertising. The support for in formation that positively influenced consumers’ attitude toward online advertising was found in various previous studies. Wolin et.al found that informat ion was positively related to attitude toward online advertising. The main reason consumers click and read online advertising is to seek information. Thus, information search is important in the consumer decision making p ro cess . Wolin et.al found that trust is a predictor for attitude toward online advertising. Th is means that when consumers trust online advertising more, they tend to have more positive attitude toward online advertising. This was also supported by past studies. In their research, they found that consumers’ attitude and decisions to go online very much depends on trus t between the consumers and computer system as well as the internet merchant. They exp lained that a consumer trusts when they are willing to rely on an exchange partner in whom they have confidence. Hence in this study, the more trust the consumer has, the more positive their att itude towards online advertising. This study offers several insights into the role of usability, trust and information in predict ing consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. Th is would add to the body of knowledge of consumers’ point of view when it co mes to online advertising. Th is study suggests implications especially for marketers who use online advertising as one of their pro motional tools. Marketers must bear in mind when they develop online advertising that consumers put emphasis on usability, in formation and also trust when surfing on online advertisements. After understanding their consumers better, advertising agencies should be able to co me out with more creat ive and innovative ads that could attract their consumers and thus giving them an added competitive advantage. This study would also contribute to government agencies ability to have a better understanding of the methods used by advertising agencies to attract the young consumers. Thus, it could help them in taking relevant measures when dealing with the ads quality. The government agencies could also use this advertising tool to reach the younger population effectively. Society could have a better understanding of online advertising and attitudes towards the ads. Therefore online International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(1): 7-12 11 advertising that are deem useful has plenty of informat ion is the main criteria for consumers to have a positive attitude towards online advertising and hence making them click on the ads. Trust is only considerate moderately important to the consumer. Th is could be due to the fact that this study aims to investigate consumers’ attitude and not their buying behavior. Besides providing valuable insights to marketers, this research also shows the importance of students fro m the age of 18 to 24 take online advertising seriously. This means that this market segment accept and find online advertising u s efu l. and support. REFERENCES  Online available: http://www.malaysianwireless.com  Online available: http://marketing-interactive.com/news/257 80  Berthon P., Pitt L.F. and Watson R.T. ,“The World Wide Web as an Advertising M edium”, Journal of Advertising Research, vol.36,no.01,pp43-54, 1996. 8. Conclusions This study serves as a base of understanding young consumers’ online attitude. Further and more in-depth research can be built fro m here. Based on one of the limitat ions of this study, the recommendation would be for future research is to investigate and include other factors which may influence consumers’ attitude towards online advertising. There should be more in-depth studies on the other factors. Besides that, the respondents can be extended to other age groups besides the young consumers as not only the young ones go online. By getting in a bigger samp le, more robust statistical technique such as structural equation modelling could be used. The future research could also be a longitudinal study to examine consumers’ attitude towards online advertising over time. One of the limitations of this research is the sampling technique. It could be imp roved in the future research by adopting a probability sampling method to widen the target respondents and to enable generalizability. It is also recommended that in future research; the study could be more focused on a particular industry. Research could be conducted on various industries. The growth of online advertising as a promotional tool by marketers is on the rise. In this study, the researchers found that all the three pred ictors which are usability, trust and informat ion play significant roles in consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. This means that consumers have more positive attitude toward online advertising when they believe that online advertising are useful, info rmative and tru s two rth y . This study offers a beginning point especially in the context of Malaysian students in understanding the relationship of the predictors and the consumers’ attitude toward online advertising. 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(2010). “Interactive search of Enron emails”, Proceedings of the Eighteenth Text Retrieval Conference Gaithersburg, M D, Nov. pp.17-20, 2009. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to take this opportunity to thank Prof. Dr. Nik Kamariah Nik Mat for her invaluable guidance, patience  Legris, P., Ingham, J. & Collerette, P., “Why do people use information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model”, Information & M anagement, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 191-204, 2003.  Davis, F. D., “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease Of Use, 12 Adeline Kok Li-M ing et al.: The Predictors of Attitude towards Online Advertising and User Acceptance of Information Technology”, M IS Quarterly, vol.13,pp. 983-1003, 1989.  Lee, M . K. O., Cheung, C. M . K., & Chen, Z., “Acceptance of Internet-based learning medium: The role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation”, Information & M anagement, vol. 42, no.8, pp. 1095-1104, 2005.  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