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Organizational citizenship behavior and well-being: preliminary results

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  • Save International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(3): 45-51 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20130303.03 Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Well-being: Preliminary Results Mª Celeste Dávila1,*, Marcia A. Finkelstein2 1Social Psychology Department, Complutense University of M adrid, M adrid, 28223, Spain 2Psychology Department, University of South Florida, Tampa, 33620, Florida Abstract The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between prosocial behaviour and well-being, specifically to examine the relationship between organizational cit izenship behavior, cit izenship motives, perceptions of organizational cit izenship behavior as in- vs. extra-role and emp loyee well-being. A total of 144 people at 17 educational companies comp leted surveys measuring the above constructs. Both organizational cit izenship behavior and its motives were associated with well-being, with altru istic motives showing a stronger correlation than egoistic motives. The perception of OCB as in-role was also related with we ll-being. The results are discussed based on previous evidence. Keywords Prosocial Behavior, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Motives, Psychological Well-Being, Subjective W ell- Be ing 1. Introduction Prosocial behaviors are actions aimed at protecting or increasing the welfare of others (e.g.,[1]). W ithin this category of behaviors are myriad activ ities including, for example, volunteerism, emergency aid, and blood donation. Many prosocial behaviors are directed at individuals, but social groups or organizations also can serve as beneficiaries[2]. Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is one type of prosocial behavior that provides benefits to organizations and their employees[3]. OCB encompasses employee activities that exceed the formal job requirements and contribute to the effective functioning of the organizat ion[4]. While cit izenship behaviors have been categorized in a mult itude of ways (e.g.,[5],[6]), one popular conceptualization proposes two dimensions differentiated according to the intended target of the behavior ([3],[7]): 1. OCB aimed at indiv iduals (OCBI). These are citizenship activit ies directed at specific people and/or groups within the organization. The help can be work-related, such assisting a colleague with a specific task. Alternatively, it may be unrelated to the job, for examp le helping a co-worker with a personal proble m. 2. OCB aimed at the organization (OCBO). Such behavior might include offering ideas to improve the organization’s functioning. * Corresponding author: (Mª Celeste Dávila) Published online at Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved While little studied with regard to OCB, well-being frequently is cast as an important antecedent of prosocial activity. Well-being has been studied fro m two perspectives: subjective and psychological. Subjective well-being includes life satisfaction and emotional responses in the form o f positive and negative affect[8]. Life satisfaction is a cognitive evaluation of the quality of one’s overall life experience[9]. Positive affect refers to the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active and alert, wh ile negative affect encompasses distress or displeasure[10]. Both can be operationalized either as a generalized affect or a mo re immed iate or daily mood. In general, individuals in a positive mood are more likely to help than those in a negative or neutral mood[11]. Experiences that improve mood precede helping behaviors. For example, pleasant aro mas pro mote prosocial behavior even in the absence of a d irect request for help[12]. Well-being also has been shown to be a consequence of prosocial behavior.[13] found that employees who participated in corporate volunteering mo re frequently reaped benefits in the form of h igher self-esteem and life satisfaction. In a longitudinal study,[14] found that there was a reciprocal causal relat ionship between life satisfaction and volunteerism. Psychological well-being refers to the develop ment of one’s potential and comprises a number of dimensions[15]: self-acceptance (positive evaluation of oneself and one’s past), personal growth (a sense of sustained growth and development), purpose (the belief that life is mean ingful), positive relations with others, environ mental mastery (the capacity to effectively manage one’s life), and autonomy or s elf-d eter min atio n . 46 Mª Celeste Dávila et al.: Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Well-being: Preliminary Results With regard to the workplace, job engagement as an indicator of psychological well-being ([16]; but see[17]). Job engagement refers to a positive mental state of fulfilment in one’s work and is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience with regard to the job and by the desire to make an effort even in the presence of difficult ies. The engaged employee shows high job involvement and feelings of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge in the work. A lso present is a total concentration on one’s responsibilities such that time passes quickly, and disconnecting from the job is difficult[18]. Aspects of psychological well-being such as environmental mastery are contained in the engagement construct (e.g.,[15]). The present work broadened the study of prosocial activity by investigating the relationship between well-being and OCB. Vo lunteeris m and OCB share important attributes: Both are deliberate and discretionary behaviors that take place in an organizational context and benefit non-intimate others. Rather than transitory responses to specific situations, the two occur over extended periods of time. Although OCB, unlike volunteerism, is carried out by emp loyees whose regular service is paid by the organization, citizenship behavior is not subject to the formal payment system of the organization ([19],[20]). Based on these similarities, it is expected that OCB, like volunteeris m, is associated with the experience of well-being. Prior investigations show that employees in a positive mood are more likely to peform extra-role behaviors at work ([21],[22],[23],[24],[25]). The relationship between positive affect and citizenship activities is particularly strong for OCBI ([26],[27],[28],[29]). Presumably, individuals in a positive mood feel more attracted to others and thus are more likely to assist them. Additionally, helping can be self-rewarding, allo wing one to maintain his or her positive affect[30] and directing the helper’s attention away fro m any negativity[31]. Self-Determination Theory[32] proposes that autonomous vs. controlled prosocial behaviors have very different effects on the individual. When behaviors have an external locus of causality, that is, when people do not feel "ownership" of their actions, autonomy is undermined, reducing well-being. Maintaining autonomy in prosocial activity boosts well-being in the form of positive affect, vitality and self-esteem[33]. In relation to perception o f autonomy of behavior, one persistent question in research on OCB is whether emp loyees in fact perceive the activ ity as extra-role. Often the boundary between OCB and formal role behavior is not clear and varies among employees and supervisors ([34],[35]). Workers with high affective co mmit ment are more likely to define their responsibilities more widely and thus engage in OCB because they view it as part of their duties. Supervisors both deliberately and unconsciously assess OCB and reward cit izenship with pro motions, increases in salary, etc. ([36],[37],[38],[39],[40],[41],[42]). One’s motives for engaging in OCB may affect the relationship between citizenship behavior and well-being. People perform citizenship behaviors for disparate reasons, with the same act ivity serving different psychological functions for different individuals[43].[20] identified three classes of motives for OCB. Two are relat ively altruistic: organizational concern (OC) or respect for organization and a sense of pride and commit ment to it; and prosocial values (PV), the desire to help others and be accepted by them. In contrast, impression management (IM) motives are egoistic. They involve a desire to be perceived as friendly or helpful in order to obtain specific benefits. That motives can vary so widely suggests that OCB may have varying effects on the well-being of those who engage in citizenship behavior. For examp le, those who seek to fulfil altru istic motives may experience mo re well-being than those whose OCB is driven by mo re selfish objectives. The potential d ifference in well-being is suggested by recent research examin ing the degree of autonomy or volition emp loyees experience in performing cit izenship activities. At one end of this “autonomy continuum” is self-motivation, in which the emp loyee’s actions are experienced as congruent with the self. They are consistent with the individual’s values and interests and reflect an internal locus of causality. In contrast, controlled behaviors do not reflect an expression of values. Such behaviors may arise fro m self-imposed pressures, such as feelings of guilt, or fro m external controls. The aim may be to maintain self-esteem, please others, or comply with certain external demands ([32],[44]). The altruistic PV and OC motives are considered autonomous, an expression of underlying values, while the self-focused IM motives are more controlled[33]. The present study examined the relat ionship between OCB, OCB motive, perception of citizenship as in-role, and emp loyee well-being. For all hypotheses, we use the same indicators of subjective and psychological well-being. For subjective well-being, these are positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. Hypothesis 1 addresses the relationship between OCB and well-being. Hypothesis 1a stems fro m the observation of a relationship between prosocial behavior and such indices of well-being as positive affect and life satisfaction. For examp le,[11] found that individuals in a positive mood are more likely to help others than those in a negative or neutral mood.[13] and[14] described a positive relationship between volunteerism and life satisfaction. And[21] showed that employees in a positive mood were more likely to peform ext ra-ro le behaviors at work. Hypothesis 1a. OCB will be positively associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, and job engagement and negatively related to negative affect. Hypothesis 1b is based on the finding that OCBI was more strongly related than OCBO to affect ive variables ([27],[28],[29]). Those in a positive mood felt mo re attracted to other individuals and thus are expected to be more likely to as sist them than the organization per s e. Hypothesis 1b. OCBI will have a greater association than International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(3): 45-51 47 OCBO with the above measures of subjective and psychological we ll-being. According to self-determination theory, people experience greater autonomy when they perceive their behaviors as freely chosen. When people do not feel ownership of their actions, the experience of well-being declines. We expect that whether emp loyees view OCB as truly discretionary will impact feelings of well-being. Hypothesis 2. The perception of OCB as in-role will show a negative correlation with positive affect, life satisfaction, and job engagement and a positive correlation with negative affect. Self-determination theory also proposes that altruistic motives for help ing generally are more autonomous than egoistic motives[33]. In a longitudinal study,[45] found that individuals who engaged in OCB because they were prosocially motivated subsequently experienced higher levels of positive affect. Hypothesis 3 examines the effect of this difference on well-being. Hypothesis 3. OC and PV mot ives will have a greater association than IM motives with all measures of psychological and subjective well-being. 2. Method 2.1. Participants Participants were 144 Spanish employees fro m 17 companies dedicated to early ch ildhood education and primary education. Their mean age was 36.19 (SD = 10.31), and 71.8% were wo men. W ith regard to educational level, 1.4% had primary school education, 10.4% secondary or high school education, and 87.5% had earned a college degree. They were emp loyed in their co mpanies between 1 month and 32 years (M = 86.43 months, SD = 99.92 months), and the majority worked full-t ime (91%). Respondents performed teaching jobs. 2.2. Instruments Participants completed a questionnaire containing the following measures: OCB. We used the[27] instrument adapted to a Spanish population[46] to measure OCBO and OCBI. The scale comprises 16 items and utilizes a 5-point Likert type response format ranging fro m 1 (never) to 5 (always). Coefficient alphas were 0.79 (OCBO) and 0.77 (OCBI). Often studies of OCB augment self-report data with informat ion fro m co-workers or supervisors. However, we were less concerned with obtaining an objective accounting of OCB than with assessing people’s perceptions of their behavior. Effect ively encouraging OCB requires understanding an individual’s v iews of his or her behavior and the underlying motivations. In-role/ext ra-role perception of OCB.[27]’s (2002) scale also was used to assess the extent to which part icipants viewed OCB as in -role activ ity. Respondents reviewed each item and indicated the degree to which they perceived each behavior as part of the job. Response alternatives ranged fro m 1 (it is an ext ra-role behavior) to 5 (it is an in-ro le behavior). Coefficient alpha was 0.93. OCB mot ives. Motives were measured with the scale used by[7] adapted to Spanish population[46]. The 30-item instrument measures PV, OC, and IM mot ives with a 5-point Likert type response format that ranges from 1 (not at all important) to 5 (extremely important). Coefficient alphas were 0.91 (OC), 0.86 (PV) and 0.91 (IM). Subjective well-being. Three dimensions of subjective well-being were measured: positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. Positive and negative affect were evaluated using a Spanish adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule[10]. The scale that was used assesses generalized affect rather than a mo mentary mood. The instrument consists of 20 items that assess feelings or emotions that one may experience. Ten items refer to positive emotions and 10 to negative emotions. Response options used a 5-point Likert format ranging fro m 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (ext remely). Coefficient alphas were 0.77 for both positive and negative affect. Life satisfaction was assessed with the 5-item scale of[47] adapted to Spanish by[48]. Response options ranged fro m 1 (absolutely disagree) to 5 (absolutely agree). Coefficient alpha was 0.84. Job engagement was evaluated with the reduced version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale developed and adapted to Spanish by[49]. The scale co mprises 9 items with a Likert-type response format ranging fro m 1 (never) to 5 (always). Coefficient alpha was 0.87. 2.3. Procedure Two data collection procedures were followed. Respondents were given the option of co mp leting the questionnaire on paper, with an emp loyee of the organization d istributing the questionnaires and collecting the completed surveys. Alternatively, participants could access the questionnaire on the Internet via a link sent by the organization to its employees. Part icipation was voluntary, and employees were informed that their data would be kept confidentia l so as to ensure anonymity. 3. Results 48 Mª Celeste Dávila et al.: Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Well-being: Preliminary Results Table 1. Means, Standard Deviat ions and Correlat ions for Variables Analyzed Variables 1. OCBO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. OCBI .60** 3. PV 4. OC .28** .60** .54** .38** .40** 5. IM .21** .21* ,25** ,20* 6. Life Satisfaction .21* .10 .15 ,30** .08 7. Positive Affect .44** .31** .38** ,44** .21* .30** 8. Negative Affect -.05 -.04 .00 -,02 .28** -.26** -.09 9. Engagement .55** .43** .37** ,50** .14 10. OCB as in-role .38** .26** .26** .58** .13 .31** .74** -.11 .13 .19* -.01 .23** M 4.33 4.36 4.17 4.17 2.77 3.80 4.02 1.80 4.01 3.88 SD .46 .45 .57 .68 .90 .75 .53 .51 .61 .81 Note: *p < .05; **p < .01 Table 1 shows the correlations among variables along with their means and standard deviations. Both types of OCB were related to positive affect (OCBO: r =. 44, p < .01; OCBI: r = .31, p < .01), and there was no significant difference between the t wo correlat ions[t(141) = 1.91, ns]. The two categories of altruistic mot ive also were positively related to positive affect (PV: r = .38, p < .01; OC: r = .44, p < .01) and showed a stronger relationship than did IM motives, but only in the case of OC motive was significantly stronger[PV: t(141) = 1.75, ns][OC: t(141) = 2.41, p < .05]. Negative affect did not have any significant relat ionship with OCB or with PV or OC motives. Negative affect did correlate positively with IM motives (r = .28, p < .01). Life satisfaction was associated with OCBO (r = .21, p < .05) but not with OCBI, and with OC motives (r = .30, p < .01) but not with PV and IM mot ives. Job engagement correlated positively with both types of OCB (OCBO: r = .55, p < .01; OCBI: r = .43, p < .01) with no significant d ifference between the t wo correlations[t(141) = 1.89, ns]. Engagement also was positively related to altruistic motives (PV: r = .37, p < .01; OC: r = .50, p < .01). Regarding the relat ionship between well-being and the perception of citizenship behavior as in-role, the results showed a positive association with positive affect (r = .19, p < .05) and engagement (r = .23, p < .01). Table 2. Summary of regression analysis for predicting OCB Variables Life Sat isfact ion Po sit ive Affect Negat iv e Affect Engagement R2 OCBO B SE B β .00 .01 .04 .02 .03 .07 .00 .02 .01 .13 .03 .48** .30 OCBI B SE B β -.02 .05 -.03 -.01 .09 -.02 .00 .07 .00 .34 .08 .46** .19 Note: * p<.05; **p<.01 To study in greater depth the relationship between OCB and well-being, mult iple regression analyses were carried out. In these analyses all wellbeing indicators were entered simu ltaneous as predictors of OCBO and OCBI (Table 2). With regard to the data collected in Table 2, only engagement was a significant predictor of OCBO (β = .48, p <. 01) and OCBI (β = .46, p <. 01), and it accounted for 30% of variance in the first case and 19% in the second case. 4. Conclusions The present work examined the extent to which OCB, citizenship motives, and the perception of cit izenship activities as in-role were associated with well-being. Both OCBO and OCBI were associated with subjective well-being in the form of positive affect and with job engagement in relation to psychological well-being. But only job engagement was a significant predictor of OCBO and OCBI. In this sense, psychological well-being seems to have a more decisive role in the development of citizenship b eh av io rs . The lack of association between OCB and negative affect was consistent with prior work (e.g.,[30],[26]) and may in part be attributable to the measures used in this study. Lee & Allen[27] found that specific negative emotions, rather than a general negative affect, exp lained some instances of OCB. Contrary to expectations, the data showed no significant differences between the two types of OCB and either positive affect or job engagement. Moreover, it was found that job engagement accounted for a greater proportion of variance in OCBO than in OCBI. Surprisingly, well-being (in particu lar, positive affect and job engagement) was positively correlated with the view of OCB as in-role. Perhaps the act of engaging in OCB produces a positive affect which in turn causes an employee to incorporate citizenship as part of the job (e.g.,[50]). International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(3): 45-51 49 Our focus here was on dispositional more than organizational variables. A co mplete understanding of the citizenship dynamic also must consider characteristics of the organization and the interaction of the individual with the organization. For examp le, affective organizat ional commit ment or organizat ional identification may explain why carrying out one’s duties may engender positive feelin g s . As hypothesized, OCB motives, in particu lar regard for the organization, also were related to well-being. On ly the self-focused IM motives were associated with negative affect. Taking on ext ra work in hopes of achieving personal benefits may generate anxiety or hostility, perhaps in part fro m a recognition that one is not as altruistic as is socially desirable. According to self-determination theory, when behaviors have an external locus of causality (therefore, they are not based on personal values), autonomy is undermined, and this reduces feelings of well-being (e.g.,[33]). Curiously, only OCBO and OC mot ives were related to life satisfaction. A potential explanation would be the importance of belonging to social groups or other social systems to people, that is, the sense of feeling involved in them.[51] described the belonging as a basic hu man need.[52] described sense of belonging as an important ele ment for mental health and social wellbeing. In this sense, behaviors and motivations that would satisfy the need of belonging may pro mote the well-being. Despite this, life satisfaction was not a significant predictor of OCBO. Possibly covariance between variab les analyzed in flated the observed relationships between OCBO and life satisfaction. The study’s cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causal relationships. Some have suggested that well-being, specifically positive affect, leads to OCB[27]. Alternatively, the reverse also may be true, with the act of helping contributing to the experience of well-being. Another limitation was the nature of the respondents’ jobs. Many were teachers, an occupation requiring a high level of education. However, studies of OCB trad itionally use lower-level emp loyees because job descriptions for more professional positions often are less specific, making it difficu lt to distinguish between formal responsibilities and OCB[53]. Thus generalizing the present findings to other types of employees may pose difficult ies[54]. Additionally, the relat ively small sample size may have contributed to underestimat ing the influence of some v ariab les . Future studies will explo re the influence of demographic variables such as age, gender, and longevity in the job also will be exp lored. Emp loyees with a long organizat ional tenure are likely define their responsibilities mo re broadly[34]. Educational level will also be examined, as similarly, education is positively associated with social responsibility[29]. Job satisfaction and organizational commit ment also affect emp loyees’ views of what constitutes in-role vs. extra-ro le behavior[34]. Additionally, we are asking whether in- vs. extra-role perceptions of OCB moderate the relationships between OCB, motive, and well-be ing. In summary, OCB, and particularly altru istically motivated OCB, is associated with positive feelings. Although the influence of in- vs. ext ra-ro le perceptions of OCB requires additional study, the data do not support the idea that viewing cit izenship as part of one’s job interferes with feelings of well-being. REFERENCES [1] Schwartz, S. 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