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Start smiling as an independent counseling skill

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  • Save International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(3): 79-82 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20130303.07 Initiating a Smile as the Independent Counseling Techniques Karyono Ibn Ahmad University of Lambung M angkurat, Department of Education Sciences Banjarmasin City, Provence Kalimantan Selatan Indonesia Pos code: 70123 Abstract Th is paper aims to conduct a study on the possibility of a s mile in the process of counseling techniques. Until now continuous review of smiles as a communication technique mostly applied in the field of customer service (customer service) and marketing (mark eting) but smile at the base as a technique can be done in various areas of life such as education in general guidance and counseling services. Smile Though very possible as a counseling technique itself as a part of the positive acceptance (positive regard). The amount of in fluence smile showed that when a nonverbal behaviors displayed demonstrate the sincerity of a counselor to the counselee's acceptance, it is necessary to train a counselor once initiated demonstrate a sincere smile . But on the other hand the issue of cultural factors also need to be given due attention however a counselor when dealing with true counselee are already in the space dimension and different cu ltures, both personal and community interaction. Keywords Smile, Process Counseling and Techniques Counseling 1. Background In the realizat ion process of counseling is a form of communicat ion wh ich is carried out in a p rofessional manner by the stimu lation of commun ication in this process there are a number of techniques that can be called with counseling skills. The skills used in communicat ing with the counselee. According to Sofyan S. Willis (2004) there are several terms used to name the techniques of counseling, which is counseling skills, counseling strategies and techniques of counseling. More distant Sofyan S. Willis (2004) defines counseling skills as a means used by a counselor in the counseling relat ionship to help clients (counselee) that deve lops their potential and be able to overcome the problems faced with considering the environmental conditions of social values, culture and relig ion. This study used the term counseling techniques. Counseling techniques are generally d ivided into two parts: verbal counseling techniques and counselingtechniqu es nonverbal, verbal counseling techniques are techniques whereas verbal co mmun ication counseling techniqueconsist s of nonverbal body language, physical gestures and facial expressions (Sofyan S. W illis, 2004; Jeanette Murad Les mana, 2005; Allen E. Ivey et al, 2010). In the non-verbal counseling techniques, facial exp ression * Corresponding author: (Karyono Ibn Ahmad) Published online at Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved plays an important role to demonstrate a positive acceptance (positive regard) counselor to counselee one of them by showing a smile. Allen E. Ivey et al (2010) suggested a smile is a good indicator to show warmth and caring counselor. Another opinion expressed by hackey & Cormier (Jeanette Murad Lesmana, 2005) that associate facial exp ressions such as smiling and positive regard with interest the appointment of counselors. However, in some counseling expert opin ion is not expressed concretely and specifically mentions a smile as a counseling technique in itself, is a consideration because a smile is its accompaniment of any response other counseling techniques used and show admission (range of) counselors. Smile often also regarded as an effort to build up the atmosphere when the counseling process is done (Allen E. Ivey et al, 2010). Yet according to D. Sauter (2010) would not surprise most of human commun ication both verbal and nonverbal sourced fro m his own face. People across cultures to understand the value of smiles and other facial exp ressions that leads to positive emotions is called happy or happiness, and finally with a s mile to help increase the positive values in the form of behavior and cooperation. Until now continuous research smiles as a communication technique mostly applied in the fields of customer service (customer service) and market ing (marketing) but smile at the base as a technique can be done in many other areas of life such as education in general for example guidance and counseling services . This study intends to study the possibility to carry out a 80 Karyono Ibn Ahmad et al.: Initiating a Smile as the Independent Counseling Techniques smile as a technique in the process of counseling and further examines cultural issues in the counseling process,especiall y with regard to s mile. 2. Library Studies 2.1. Counseling Process The counseling process is seen as attempt to find the mean ing of a decision on the problems experienced by the counselee. When the process was established in an attempt to counseling the counselee to maintain and restructure the way their v iew of the world, are often an attempt mastery. For that collaboration between counselor and counselee in making alliances to strengthen the meaning of work and offer oppor tunities for creativity, learning and synthesis, and increased motivation to achieve the goal of understanding the issues required in stages (Tracey Robert & Virginia A. Kelly, 2010). In order to achieve maximu m collaboration will require unconditional acceptance. Roads that can be taken to reach it is by the emotional climate that supports the counselee that he was no one to help. W ith increased empathic understandi ng, counselee generally increase the level of satisfaction of counseling, the possibility of comp liance, and involvement in the counseling process. Throughout the counseling proce ss empathy become an integral part of empathy, because empathy is born o f the positive reception (Arthur J. Clark, 2010). 2.2. Counseling Process and Acceptance Positive (Positive Regard) Positive acceptance (positive regard) is a dynamic concept of personality of Carl Rogers who demand indiv idual acceptance by other individuals. In hu mans evolved positive reception from infancy to adulthood. Positive reception of its ideal properties unconditional (unconditional positive regar d). Positive reception experience evolves placing a reciproca l basis. People are content to receive positive regard, and also feel satisfied can g ive positive regard to others. when positive regard was internalized, people will be able to obtain satisfaction of his own, or accept self-positive (positive self-regard) (Alwisol, 2010). Besides that, the positive acceptance of the award should be coupled with a positive attitude. Yours or refer the counselee as a manifestation of a personal tribute to the counselee counselor dignified and humane. If this is achieved then the counseling process will be e ffective (Andi Mappiare AT, 2006). 2.3. Reception Smile as Positi ve (Positive Regard) On the dynamics of social co mmunicat ion facial expressi on is an absolute requirement when going to establish social communicat ion. For the first time when the contacts are built or when the facial exp ressions in communication plays an important ro le and determine the continu ity of communicat i on, so that facial exp ressions can be said is that emot ional cues act as social cues. Fro m the first physical contact that is based on a facial exp ression conveys sincerity signaled to affiliate which is defined as an indiv idual or an offer of help for the opportunity to connect the negative (Michael J. Bernstein et al, 2008). Smile has a big impact in the commun ication processespe cially on the positive acceptance (positive regard). Among the positive revenue impact of a s mile as fo llo ws: a. So meone with a s mile wou ld improve the understandin g of the psychological condition experienced by other people, because of the smile on a process of communicat ion when responding to and assessing verbal communicat ion depiction adaptively interlocutor (Lucy Johnston, Lynden Miles & C. Neil Macrae , 2010). b. With a smile on the other person can direct them to express themselves and the other person's openness can easily be expressed freely mood (Anneke Caro lijn Vrugt & Vet, 2009). c. Smiling as positive facial e xpression is often interpreted as a feeling of sympathy and empathy. Interlocutors interpret a smile as a deep sense of understanding and touching mood (Millicent H. Abel & Heather Watters, 2005). 2.4. Defini tion, Characteristics, Types and Effects Smile 2.4.1. Definit ion Smile A smile is one of the most important elements in the lang uage of the human body. Although deceptively simp le, in essence smile is a comp lex behavior. Once the extent of the mean ing contained in the smile attracted many researchers to conduct research psychology. In the last few years along with imp rove field of positive psychology as a new claim, the research related to the positive aspects of human well developed. Positive psychology has always been associated with the meanings of human happiness. This study is limited to s mile as the willingness tocooper ate and affiliate. Fro m the exp lanation above, the definition of a s mile is always associated with the two sides of the mouth and lips. Ril oral regarded as an indicator of a smile, but this is not entirely true. Yuki et al (Achim Elfering & Simone Grebner, 2010) believe a s mile or mouth as an indicator of happiness broadly confined to the western cultu re, when people in general tend to express their emotions. In eastern cultures, a smile indicated not only the mouth but also the eyes. This understanding does not mean that the opinions expressed D. Sauter (2010) prev iously mistaken but the value of smiles and other facial exp ressions but does universal indicator of a smile not only the mouth but also the eyes. 2.4.2. Characteristics Smile Smile has distinct characteristics similar to other facial expressions. Tendency smile traits often leads to attempts to demonstrate a sense of fun, cooperation or hiding negative emotional e xperiences (see Michael J. Bernstein et al (2008) International Journal of Applied Psychology 2013, 3(3): 79-82 81 previously). Specifically the properties of such a smile. 1) Smile transmit emot ions to the opponent communicat i on, study and Blairy Hess (Zhivotovkaya, 2008) by showing participants video clips that show someone who is expressin g anger, sadness, disgust and happiness. Results showed that participants consistently imitate expressions shown on the video clip playback time. In the end they concluded that emotional contagion occurs fro m the body expression responded to by opponent communication. 2) Smile has a close relationship with the increase in the worth of pride and self. Tracy and Matsumoto (D. Sauter, 2010) conducted a study to collect photographs of people who win fights of 30 participants fro m 30 different countries. The result they find there are a nu mber of similarit ies behav ior associated with the expression of pride among arms raised, head tilted, s miling and puffing out his chest. 3) Smile reduce tension in the communicat ion barriers in those who are considered to have the power. Research conducted by Qin Zhang (2005) on a campus in the middle of PRC proves that the power distance between teachers and students are not so great if the teacher is able to create a fu ll communicat ion pro ximity co mmun ication. One of them with a smile o ften giving the student. 2.4.3. Types of Smiles Based on the kind smile there are basically two types name ly genuine smile and a fake smile (M ichael J. Be rnstein et al, 2008; Athif Abu Al Ng, 2011). According Athif Abu Al Id (2011), to distinguish between true and false smiles can be done by paying attention. 1. In general, the smile was resting on the veins of the face on both sides. Facial veins, if it's a fake s mile on the face of the movement veins left will reveal it because the veins of the left face is more expressive than the right. 2. The easiest way to find out is through the eyes of a fake smile, be seen clearly especially when eyes narrowed as he s miled . 3. In the mouth, part icularly the upper lip is raised excessively while the lo wer lip did not react at all signify that fake s mile. 4. His o ld s mile, a smile that was usually does not take more than four seconds, whereas a fake s mile irregular and slower exp ression on his face. 5. Reflections on the opponent's feelings last communicat ion is a way to distinguish true smile and a fa ke smile. Smile that does have a strong emotional charge that opponents of the communication will be with mo re experience. 2.4.4. Effect of Grin Smile has a great influence on human beings and smile often described as reflecting commun ications. Smile is also referred to as one part of the positive emot ions can function improves learn ing and effective decision-making (Joni Holderman, 2010). 2.5. Understanding Cultural Issues In human commun ication when interacting with other human beings can not be separated fro m issues of both culture and the individualistic culture of the commun ity. When humans interact with each other then the first thing to do is identify the nonverbal behavior of each indiv idual listener, this effort was not separated from the role of cu lture as a standard for judging the merits of a person. When doing the communicat ion process according to Richard E. Porter and Larry A. Samovar (2006) communica tions are certainly not independent at the level of culture, cultural similarit ies in perception allo ws giving meaning thus similar to a social object or an event. Ways to commun icate, the circu mstances of communication, language and style of the language used and nonverbal behaviors, all of it was mainly a response to and a function of culture. Co mmu nication is culture bound. As cultures differ fro m each other, the communicat ion practices and behaviors of individuals who have been brought in those cultures would be different anyway. The next issue to consider is ethnocentric, Jefferson M. Fish (2008) pointed out that avoiding mistakes ethnocentris m standpoint, because a smile is prone to this issue. Ethnocentrism is when people mistakenly see their own cultural perspectives simu ltaneously in objective reality it reflects the culture of egocentrism inevitable that individual psychological perspective was wrong could be regarded as an accurate objective is reworded. 3. Discussion and Conclusions According to Hackney & Co rmier (Jeannette Murad Les mana, 2005), is a non-verbal counseling techniquesnonverb al behaviors associated with positive acceptance (positive regard) include a soft tone and soothing voice, facial expression and a smile that showed interest, relaxed posture and leaning toward the speaker, who see direct eye contact counselee, gestures open and full of warmth, wh ich is close to the physical position and a soft touch. Smile as a counseling technique that requires steps that can be done on an ongoing basis, namely: First, conduct research both qualitative and quantitative approaches in the scientific method and cross diffe rent topics fro m d ifferent areas of life setting of a school counseling setting up community or other co mmunit ies that also pertain smile p icture can be viewed fro m many different review. Second, fro ma nu mber of studies that have been done then the next step is to formu late a number of research and gather the gist of a study of the theoretical study that found solid fundamentals with regard to smile as counseling techniques. Surely th is will be born d itahap rules, and the conditions typical imp lementation smile despite the theoretical level. Third, make and model of designing programs that facilitate train ing or counseling techniques use a smile or at least a smile integrate counseling techniques with techniques other counseling skills in an integrated manner. The proposed third step penulis certainly not final in the end, of 82 Karyono Ibn Ahmad et al.: Initiating a Smile as the Independent Counseling Techniques course, there will be a nu mber of breakthroughs do various p arties . Facilitating Client Development in a Multicultural Society. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole Cengage Learning. REFERENCES [9] Johnston, Lucy., M iles, Lynden. & M acRae, C. Neil. (2010). 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"An Sacco, Donald F., & Claypool, Heather M . (2008). Adaptive Responses to Social Exclusion Social Rejection Improves Detection of Real and Fakes Smiles. In Association for Psychological Science: Psychological Science Journal Approach to Intercultural Communication," in M ulyana, Deddy & Grace, Jalaluddin. Intercultural Communication: A Guide to Communicating with People Different Cultures. Bandung: Rosdakarya. [Online], Vol.19 (10), 981-yard 983.Tersedia: http:// search. ebschost. com [October 28 2011]. [14] Qin, Zhang. (2005). Immediacy, Humor, Power Distance, and Classroom Communication Apprehension in Chinese College [5] Elfering, Achim & Grebner, Simone. (2010). A Smile is Just a Smile: But Only For M en. Sex Differences in M eaning of Classrooms. In ProQuest Education Journals: Quarterly Co mmunication [Online], Vol.53 (1), pages 109-124. Available: Faces Scales. 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