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Relative effectiveness of self-management, EQ and self-confidence training programs in reducing the likelihood of terrorism and violence among Nigerian adolescents

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Applied Psychology 2014, 4(6): 214-222 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20140406.02 Comparative Effectiveness of Self-Management, Emotional Intelligence and Assertiveness Training Programs in Reducing the Potentials for Terrorism and Violence among Nigerian Adolescents Ayodele Kolawole Olanrewaju1,*, Sotonade Olufunmilayo A. T.2 1Research and International Cooperation, Babcock University Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria 2Prof. in Counselling Psychology, Department of Educational Foundations & Management, Faculty of Education, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria Abstract Youth involvement in organized armed crimes has been on the increase especially in a nation like Nigeria with millions of jobless youths. This study investigated the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs in reducing the potentials for terrorism and violence among Nigerian adolescents. A quasi experimental pretest, control group research design of 3x2x2 factorial matrix type was used for this study. Gender (male and female) and locus of control (internal and external) used as moderating variables were considered at 2 different levels along with two (3) experimental groups. The study participants were one hundred and eighty (180) Senior Secondary 2 students randomly selected from 3 coeducational secondary schools from three different Local Government Areas in Remo educational block of Ogun State, Nigeria. One standardized instrument was used in collecting data while analysis of covariance was used to analyze the generated data. Results show that all the treatment programmes (SM = 20.981 and 1.901; EQ = 21.009 and 1.687; AT = 22.046 and 1. 418) were effective in fostering the reduction of adolescents’ potentials for terrorism and violence but self-management was found to be most effective. The study also revealed that both gender and locus of control of participants combined to interact with the treatment to affect participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence. Results showed that male participants benefit more from self-management and assertiveness training programs while the female benefit more from emotional intelligence training. Also, all the treatment packages work more on the individual internal LOC compared to their external LOC. Based on the findings; it was recommended that the treatment packages could be used as veritable tools in equipping adolescents with necessary skills to help the youths live a worthy life that will bring about better future and peaceful co-existence among the people of the world. Keywords Self-management, Emotional intelligence, Assertiveness training, Potentials, Terrorism, Violence, Nigeria, Adolescents 1. Introduction All over the world today, terrorism has been perceived as criminal acts, which are considered to be at odds with social, morals and common decency, or to be damaging to the interests of the community, as it is the case with the hijacking of passenger planes, hostage taking of the innocents for purposes of blackmail, the planting of bombs at large gathering, the mining of railway lines for purposes of protest demonstration, subversion or sabotage, the undertaking of reprisals by some countries against the population of others, * Corresponding author: ayodelewole@gmail.com (Ayodele Kolawole Olanrewaju) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2014 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved the victims of which are innocent persons (Kashima, 2003, and Moghaddam, 2005, cited in Tatar, Amram & Kelman, 2010). Terrorism is not just a perceived phenomenon in Nigeria; it is real and felt all over the country- state, intra-state, or international. It is real because all the factors that precipitate terrorism are patently present coupled with the fact that Nigeria is economically and politically unstable. Ayodele (2012) and Ogundiya & Amzat, (2008) rightly noted that in Nigeria today, the threat of terrorism is constantly present, which is characterized by ethnic tensions and religious crisis, poverty is on the high side and many Nigerians are economically deprived as a result of pandemic corruption and gross mismanagement of national resources by our political leaders. Nigeria is the most populous black nation on earth with a International Journal of Applied Psychology 2014, 4(6): 214-222 215 total population of 150 million citizens as of the 2006 Census and a youth population of 80 million, representing 60% of the total population with a growth rate of 2.6% per year (National Bureau of Statistics-NBS, 2006). It is fortified with various resources—natural, physical, and material—which, if harnessed could lubricate and engineer the nation’s economic growth. Amosun, Sotononde, & Ayodele (2013) and Anayochukwu (2008) rightly noted that the untapped human resources, unfavourable economy and political instability in Nigeria over the years have resulted in a high propensity for criminal behaviour and violence among the youth. For instance, in 2008 Nigerian Tribune reported a ferocious incident of terrorism and radicalization of some young people in one area of Ogun State over the inauguration of a traditional leader. Empirically, Ibrahim (2006)’s survey of children and youth in organized armed violence in Nigeria, showed that disenchantment and frustration of young people due to mass poverty and unemployment has increased the number of aggrieved youths and resulted in the emergence of area boys and Al-majiris who target the very society that alienated them. He concluded that armed militant groups in Nigeria such as Bakassi Boys, Odua Peoples’ Congress (OPC) and Egbesu Boys were made up of youths within 16 - 17 years (40%), 18 – 19 years (10%), 20 - 21 years (20%), and 20 – 23 years (20%). However, violent crime and radicalization among the educated youths (students) has also been on the increase. These incidents of youth crime have created some scenes at local and international levels. The unwelcoming aspect of the episode is that the number of recruits, the density of active crime participants, and the sophistication of operations (Oni, 2008; Obi, 2008; Punch, 2008) create an atmosphere of apprehensiveness among the populace (Alemika & Chukwuma, 2006; Egwakhe & Osabuohien, 2010). One of the techniques that allow people to modify their own behavior is self-management. “Self-management is not a specific, unitary intervention, but rather a collection of techniques. Self-management skills refer to the type of skills taught in competence enhancement programs that help young people manage cognitions, behaviors, and affect. Self-management can be explained by the self-theory, which believes that individuals have potential for self-actualization. Carl Rogers, the proponent of this theory, believed that human beings have inherent tendency to develop their “self” in the process of interpersonal and social experiences, which they have in the environment (Chauman 2000). Since the individual has the potential for self-actualization, self-management techniques will make the rebellious individual take part in the management of his own behavior. Self-management skills can help youth manage cognitions, behaviors, and affect such as decision-making, problem-solving, and coping skills. A latent construct of self-management comprises of indicator measures of decision-making, problem-solving, self-control, and self-reinforcement skills (Griffin, Scheier & Botvin, 2009). Regardless of the specific elements, all self-management techniques are implemented to help people control their own behavior with less reliance on outside behavior-change agents (Harrison, 2005). The self-management procedures consisted of a package of several specific self-management techniques. The body of research focusing on the role of such skills in the development of behavior problems among children and adolescence has been growing in recent years. Several recent studies have examined the protective effects of conceptually related constructs such as self-control, self-regulation, and executive functioning skills in youth development (Adeoye, 2012; Aderanti & Hassan, 2011; Griffin, Scheier & Botvin, 2009). In a study of college undergraduates, poor emotional self-regulation was associated with greater participation in risky behaviors such as smoking, while poor cognitive self-regulation appeared to increase faulty risk assessments and led to an over-emphasis on the benefits of risky behavior (Magar et al., 2008). Self-management therapy has been reported to be effective in stamping out maladaptive behaviour among children and adolescents (Adeoye, 2012, Aderanti, 2006, Griffin, Scheier & Botvin, 2009). Lange & Jakubowski (1976) define assertiveness as standing up for personal rights and expressing thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in direct, honest, and appropriate ways which do not violate another person’s rights. This simply means that an assertive person will always be proactive and not reactive no matter how awful the situation he finds himself. Assertiveness training according to Mehrabi Zade, Taghavi, & Attari (2009) is a structural intervention which is used for social relationship improvement, anxiety disorder therapy, and phobias in children, teenagers and adults alike. Research have shown that assertiveness training is a multi-content method that embraces guidance, role playing, feedback, modeling, practice and the review of trained behaviors (Iro-Idoro, 2013, McCartan & Hargie, 2004). This training over the years have been used as an instrument for initiating and maintaining socially supportive relationships and hence enjoying better emotional well-being (Eskin, 2003). It promotes mental health in adolescence and directly influence individual self-esteem (Bijstra et al., 1994), reduces psychological distress (Taylor et al., 2002), depression (Eskin, 2003), and risk behaviour (Cuijpers, 2002). Demographic variables such as gender have been reported by earlier studies to have significant moderating effect on effectiveness of assertiveness in adolescents. For instance, Eskin (2003) reported that boys are more assertive than girls while Bourke (2002) findings show that girls have a significantly higher score on assertive communication and independence. However, a recent study by Karagözog˘lu, Kahve, Koç, & Adamis¸og˘lu (2008) revealed no significant gender differences in assertiveness. Emotional intelligence has been seen as the capacity of creating positive outcomes in relationships with others and oneself, as well as adequate relationship with the immediate environment which will promote peaceful co-existence among significant others. Mayer & Salovey (1993) sees 216 Ayodele Kolawole Olanrewaju et al.: Comparative Effectiveness of Self-Management, Emotional Intelligence and Assertiveness Training Programs in Reducing the Potentials for Terrorism and Violence among Nigerian Adolescents emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. Previous research have revealed positive correlations between assessed emotional intelligence scores and one's positive perceptions, social interactions, and one’s ability to cope in stressful situations (Bar-On, 2006; Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Therefore, emotional intelligence training is one of the major skills needed by individual especially adolescents for self- control, self-awareness, cooperation and empathy that are necessary for sound decision-making. Smith (2007) asserts that such a skill is critical to making the right choices and in molding the adolescent’s brain for making strong emotional responses to meet daily life challenges. According to Stein, (2009) emotional intelligence creates self-awareness among adolescents, which is the ability to understand one’s emotions and feelings. It enables an individual to tune into and evaluate his or her true feelings. An understanding of one’s true feelings grants an individual the power to manage his or her emotions. Furthermore, Locus of control which is a personality construct refers to an individual’s perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behaviour versus fate, luck or external circumstances. It is a belief about whether the outcomes of our actions are contingent on what we do (internal control orientation) or on events outside our personal control (external control orientation) (Zimbardo, 1985 cited by Nwakwo, Balogun, Chukwudi, & Ibene, 2012). Also, gender is the moderating variable of the study which was believed to have been having consistent direct and indirect impact on behavioural change (Abosede, 2007; Adeyemo, 1999; Ayodele, 2011; Carless, 2004). Thus, this study believes that making a connection between locus of control and gender and the independent variables will offer insights unlike those provided in the literature to date. While acknowledging the fact that different studies had established the effectiveness of self-management (Adeoye, 2012, Aderanti, 2011, Griffin, Scheier & Botvin, 2009); assertiveness training (Eskin, 2003; Iro-Idoro, 2013, McCartan & Hargie, 2004) and emotional training (Bar-On, 2006; Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Smith, 2007) as training skills needed by individual for self- control, self-awareness, cooperation and empathy that are necessary for sound decision-making and peaceful co-existence; there has been no study till date that combine the three treatment packages in reducing or stamping out potentials for terrorism and violence among the adolescents. Therefore, this study sees the need to look into the differential effectiveness of the therapeutic packages in order to reduce or stamp out the tendency of being violent, radical, and being a terror among our youths who were children of yesterday, adults of today and elders/leaders of tomorrow. 2. Research Hypotheses 1. There is no significant difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels. 2. There is no significant gender difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels. 3. There is no significant locus of control difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels. 4. There is no significant gender difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence with different locus of control. 3. Methodology Research Design: The quasi experimental pretest, control group research design of 3x2x2 factorial matrix type was used for this study. This involved three experimental groups (exposed to treatment), gender (male and female) and locus of control (internal and external). Population, sample and sampling method: The statistical population in this research consisted of all the senior secondary school two (SS2) students. Three coeducational secondary schools were selected through simple random sampling from three different Local Government Areas in Remo educational block of Ogun State, Nigeria. This was done to cater for the three experimental groups needed. In order to determine the statistical sampling, three hundred (300) students were chosen from both genders. Rotter’s locus of control and crime behaviour battery was completed for indicating the locus of control levels and terrorism potentials. From the main sample of 300 students, 180 students were chosen who scored high marks in crime behaviour battery showing high potentials for terrorism, while locus of control scale was used to group the students further into those with internal and external locus of control in their acts. Their age ranged between fourteen (14) and seventeen (17) years with a mean age of 15.7 years. The students were further assigned to the treatment groups as shown in Table 1. Instrumentation: Test 1 of the Crime Behaviour Factor Battery (CBFB) developed by Animasahun (2006) which evaluates potentials for terrorism and violence among the adolescents based on self-report responses to 33 items tapping the appraisal and expression of crime behaviour in self. Participants responded by indicating their agreement to International Journal of Applied Psychology 2014, 4(6): 214-222 217 each of items on a five-point scale ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1). Sample items include ‘I take revenge on anybody that offends me, I find it very difficult to control myself when provoked’ and ‘Life is meaningless to me I don’t what happens’. This section of the CBFB has demonstrated high internal consistency of Cronbach alpha of 0.83 in this study. Table 1. A 3x2x2 factorial matrix design determining the effects of experimental factors on potentials for terrorism and violence among Nigerian adolescents Treatment Self-Management Assertiveness Training Emotional Intelligence Total Gender and Locus of Control Levels Male Female Internal LOC External LOC Internal LOC External LOC Total 15 15 15 15 60 15 15 15 15 60 15 15 15 15 60 45 45 45 45 180 study. The selection of student based on gender and locus of control was also put into consideration while using the balloting method of selection. Participants were therefore assigned to the three treatment groups. After the selection process, participants were briefed on the objective of the study and the benefits therein. ii. The treatment Stage: The participants in the three experimental groups (self-management = 60, emotional intelligence = 60 and assertiveness training = 60) were subjected to ten (10) weeks of treatment programmes. Each session took 50 minutes. iii. Post-treatment Stage: This is the evaluation stage. At the end of the ten (10) weeks training, the groups were subjected to post-test using the same CBFB to see result arising from the training. Method of Analysis: Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was adopted to analyze data generated and to test the hypothesis at 0.05 significant level. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was utilized to investigate the joint effect of the independent variables on the dependent variables. Procedure: The process of sampling of participants, allocation of the participants to groups and the group of treatment programmes followed strict process of randomization. Basically, procedure was carried out in three stages as follows: i. Pre-treatment stage: This involve a familiarization visit to the three selected schools, which focused on general introduction, establishment of rapport as well as administration of Crime Behaviour Factor Battery (CBFB) developed by Animasahun (2006) to all the 300 SS2 students. A simple random sampling procedure was used to select 180 participants. To ensure that every student have equal chance of being selected, the word ‘YES’ and ‘NO’ were written on separate slips and placed in a plastic bowl. After thorough reshuffling, students were asked to pick the slips of paper, those with ‘YES’ were used for the 4. Results The outcome of this study indicated a significant effect of treatment on participants’ potential levels of terrorism and violence (F(2.175) = 6.024; p = .000). Also, a significant main effect of gender (F(1.175) = 3.881; p = .000), main effects of locus of control was observed (F(1.175) = 6.381; p = .033) on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence. The results also revealed a significant two-way interaction effects of treatment and gender (F(1,175) = 4.339; p = .011); gender and locus of control (F(2,175) = 3.731; p = .055). A significant two-way interaction effects of treatment and locus of control was observed (F(1,175) = 8.192; p = .015). The results showed further that a three-way interaction effect of treatment, gender and locus of control (F(2.175) = 5.827; p = .009) on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence. See Table 2 for details. Table 2. Analysis of Covariance of the Main and Interaction Effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs, Gender and Locus of Control on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels Source Corrected Model Intercept Pre- potentials for terrorism/ violence Treatment Gender Locus of Control Treatment X gender Treatment X Locus of Control Gender X Locus of Control Treatment X gender X Locus of Control Error Total Corrected Total Type III Sum of Squares df` Mean square F Sig. 3011.002(a) 1148.013 59.419 779.875 305.204 578.435 238.103 744.074 296.918 641.239 1031.406 2718.574 2468.444 12 1 210.113 1 1148.013 2 54.419 1 406.117 1 200.714 2 219.818 2 86.985 1 322.082 2 180.222 175 247.688 179 322.012 178 2.182 .000 189.729 .000 1.011 .113 6.024** .017 3.889** .000 6.381** .033 4.339** .011 8.192** .023 3.731** .055 5.827** .009 a R Square = .413 (Adjusted R Square = .389) 218 Ayodele Kolawole Olanrewaju et al.: Comparative Effectiveness of Self-Management, Emotional Intelligence and Assertiveness Training Programs in Reducing the Potentials for Terrorism and Violence among Nigerian Adolescents Table 3. Descriptive Statistics of Potentials for Terrorism and Violence Scores of Participants’ in Self-management, Emotional Intelligence and Assertiveness Training Programs Dependent Variable: Post-test participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence Group Self-management Emotional Intelligence Assertiveness Training Mean 20.981(a) 21.009(a) 22.046(a) Std. Error 1.901 1.687 1.418 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 18.707 20.048 21.661 21.486 22.689 23.506 a. covariates appearing in the model are evaluated at the following values: pre-test participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence = 48.672. Note: Higher mean score shows high potentials for terrorism and radicalization while lower score shows less potential for terrorism and violence. Table 4. Univariate Analysis of Covariance for effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on Participants’ level of potentials for terrorism and violence Dependent Variable: post-test potentials for terrorism and violence (Grand Mean = 22.846) Contrast Error Sum of Square Df Mean Square F Sig. 1008.386 2 504.193 17.502** .017 5041.202 175 28.807 The F tests of the effect of group. This test is based on the linearly independent pairwise comparisons among the estimated marginal means. Table 5. Descriptive Statistics of the potentials for terrorism and violence Scores of male and female participants in self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs Dependent Variable: post-test potentials for terrorism Group Self-management (SM) Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Assertiveness Training (AT) Gender Male Female Male Female Male Female Mean 19.187(a) 21.123(a) 22.486(a) 20.889(a) 21.744(a) 23.491(a) Std. Error 1.922 1.869 1.627 1.888 1.726 1.531 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 18.037 23.040 21.000 24.876 21.372 25.111 20.333 22.817 21.020 23.001 22.896 25.103 A covariates appearing in the model are evaluated at the following values: pre-test adolescents’ potentials for terrorism and violence = 48.672. Table 6. Descriptive Statistics of the potentials for terrorism and violence Scores of participants with internal and external locus of control in self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs Dependent variable: post-test potentials for terrorism Group Self-management (SM) Emotional Intel. (EQ) Assertiveness Training (AT) Locus of Control Internal External Internal External Internal External Mean 22.106(a) 25.543(a) 24.419(a) 27.700(a) 22.331(a) 24.009(a) Std. Error 1.972 1.560 1.851 1.543 1.968 1.888 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 21.119 24.389 24.221 27.108 21.931 23.987 22.508 26.000 24.808 28.301 23.001 24.670 a. Covariates appearing in the model are evaluated at the following values: pre-test potentials for terrorism and violence = 48.672. Results revealed that participants exposed to self-management (SM) had a mean score of 20.981 and a standard error of 1.901, participants under emotional intelligence (EQ) had a mean score of 21.009 and a standard error of 1.687, while a mean score of 22.046 and a standard error of 1.418 was revealed for participants under the assertiveness training (AT). To determine if significant difference exists in the mean scores of treatment, the analysis of covariance was undertaken as indicated in Table 4. Data analysis in Table 4 above revealed a univariate F-ratio of 17.50 that was found to be significant beyond the predicted .05 level. The null hypothesis of no significant difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels could not be supported by the findings of this study. Therefore, the earlier stated null hypothesis was rejected. The implication of this is that all the treatment packages were potent in reducing adolescents’ potentials for terrorism and violence. International Journal of Applied Psychology 2014, 4(6): 214-222 219 Results in Table 5 lend credence to Table 2 that there was a significant two-way interaction effect of treatment and gender on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence (F(1,175) = 4.339; p = .011). Results from table 5 above showed that male participants’ mean scores on potentials for terrorism and violence after treatment was 19.187 under the SM treatment was significant from that of the female participants (21.123). Also, the mean score of male participants (22.486) under the EQ group was totally different from those of the female participants (20.889). In addition, the mean score of male participants (21.744) under the AT group was different from that of the female participants (23.491). The null hypothesis of no significant gender difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels was by this finding rejected. This implies that participants’ gender would significantly interact with the treatment of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training in reducing adolescents’ potentials for terrorism and violence. The results revealed that participants with internal locus of control in the SM group had a mean potential for terrorism and violence score of 22.106 as against the mean score of 25.543 revealed for those participants with external locus of control. However, participants in the EQ group who are with internal locus of control had a mean potential for terrorism and violence score of 24.419 as against the mean score of 27.700 revealed for participants with external locus of control. At the AT group, participants with internal locus of control had a mean potentials for terrorism and violence score of 22.331 while participants with external locus of control had a mean score of 24.009. The null hypothesis which postulated that there is no significant locus of control difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels was rejected by the findings of this study. The findings imply that participants’ locus of control type will interact with the treatment to affect participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence. Results in Table 7 revealed the different mean scores of potentials for terrorism and violence for male and female participants with internal and external locus of control under SM, EQ, and AT groups. Under the SM group, the potentials for terrorism and violence of male participants with internal locus of control indicated a mean of 22.512 with a standard error of 1.847, while the mean score of 20.105 and a standard error of 2.133 were revealed for male participants with external locus of control. For the female participants, the mean score for those with internal LOC was 22.437 and the standard error was 1.898, while those with external LOC have a mean score of 23.779 and a standard error of 1.880. For participants under EQ group, potentials for terrorism and violence of male participants with external LOC indicated a mean score of 21.133 with a standard error of 1.004, while the mean score of 21.586 and a standard error of 1.712 were revealed for male participants with external LOC. For the female participants, the mean score of those with internal LOC was 20.990 and the standard error was 2.011, while those with external LOC have a mean score of 21.123 and a standard error of 1.999. However, for participants under the AT group, the mean score of male participants with internal LOC was 22.005 with a standard error of 1.921, while the mean score of 23.092 and a standard error of 1.480 were revealed for male participants with external LOC. For the female participants, the mean score for those with internal LOC was 21.456 and the standard error was 1.967, while those with external LOC have a mean score of 22.054 and a standard error of 1.919. Table 7. Descriptive Statistics of Potentials for Terrorism and Violence Scores of Male and Female Participants with internal and External Locus of Control in Self-management, Emotional Intelligence and Assertiveness Training Programs Dependent Variable: post-test potentials for terrorism and violence Group Gender Self-management (SM) Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Assertiveness Training (AT) Male Female Male Female Male Female Locus of Control Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Mean 22.512(a) 20.105(a) 22.437(a) 23.779(a) 21.133(a) 21.586(a) 20.990(a) 21.123(a) 22.005(a) 23.092(a) 21.456(a) 22.054(a) Std. Error 1.847 2.133 1.898 1.880 1.004 1.712 2.011 1.999 1.921 1.480 1.967 1.919 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 22.338 19.987 22.103 23.202 20.777 21.571 20.325 20.961 21.907 23.000 21.440 21.993 24.003 21.102 22.696 24.117 21.826 21.956 21.079 21.417 22.502 23.566 21.809 22.234 a. Covariates appearing in the model are evaluated at the following values: pre-test potentials for terrorism = 48.672. 220 Ayodele Kolawole Olanrewaju et al.: Comparative Effectiveness of Self-Management, Emotional Intelligence and Assertiveness Training Programs in Reducing the Potentials for Terrorism and Violence among Nigerian Adolescents The null hypothesis which suggests that there is no gender difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence with different locus of control was rejected by the findings of this study. The findings imply that gender and LOC of participants will combine to interact with the treatment to affect participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence. 5. Discussion This study examined the differential effectiveness of the therapeutic packages (self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs) and the moderating roles played by gender and locus of control in order to reduce or stamp out the tendency of being a terrorist among Nigerian adolescents. Therefore, the results of the first hypothesis show a significant difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels. The implication of this finding is that the three treatment packages individually are potent in stamping out potentials for terrorism and violence in youths. This might be as a result of participants’ exposure to ten weeks treatment. This indicates not only the effectiveness of the three treatment strategies but also the utilization of treatment gains by the participants as well. The present findings lend good credence to the findings and outcomes of various researchers who exposed their subjects to either self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs that have been used successfully in managing behaviour problems such as bullying, communication problems and rebellion (Adeoye, 2012; Aderanti & Hassan 2011; Griffin, Scheier & Botvin, 2009). Another significant finding of this study is the significant difference in the effectiveness of the treatment packages in favour of self-management as shown in Table 3 above (SM = 20.981 and 1.901; EQ = 21.009 and 1.687; AT = 22.046 and 1. 418). This difference could be based on the premise that self-management is not a specific, unitary intervention, but rather a collection of techniques. A significant gender difference was observed in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence. The results as recorded in Table 5 revealed gender differences in the mean scores of the effect of the therapeutic packages on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence, and it was shown that male participants benefit more from self-management and assertiveness training programs while the female benefit more from emotional intelligence training. The results supported the previous findings that gender has been having consistent direct impact on behavioural change (Ayodele, 2011). It should be noted, however, that the gender difference accounted for in this study cannot be explained empirically. This came as a surprise as the previous findings of Abosede (2007), Adeyemo (1999) and Salami (1999) claimed that gender does not consistently have direct impact on outcome variables such as behavioural change. The hypothesis that stated no significant locus of control difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence levels cannot be sustained in this study. The results as shown in Table 6 revealed LOC differences in the mean scores of the effect of the therapeutic packages on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence. It was shown that all the therapeutic packages (self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs) work more on the individual internal LOC compared to external LOC. It can be deduced that since LOC is a personality construct that reflects individual’s perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behaviour versus fate, luck or external circumstances, the difference in the findings could be based on the premise that individual behaviour is rooted in factors inherent within (thought and emotions) and outside the individual. This corroborates the findings of Ayodele (2011), Azeez (2007), Baron and Bryne (1997), Zajonc & McIntocsh (1992) that we all experience and express emotions throughout our daily lives, and our emotional thought at any given moments influences our perceptions, cognition, motivation, decision making and interpersonal judgments. The outcome of the fourth hypothesis revealed a significant gender difference in the effect of self-management, emotional intelligence and assertiveness training programs on participants’ potentials for terrorism and violence with different locus of control levels. Therefore, there is a significant difference in the three way interactions of treatment, gender and locus of control in the reduction of potentials for terrorism and violence levels among adolescents. This result is not surprising either since gender and locus of control play an important and well-documented role in behaviour modification among youths (Abosede, 2007; Adeyemo, 1999; Ayodele, 2011; Nwakwo, Balogun, Chukwudi, & Ibene, 2012). 6. Conclusions and Implication of Findings This study found the effectiveness of self-management (SM), emotional intelligence (EQ) and assertiveness training (AT) programs in reducing the potentials for terrorism and violence among adolescents in Nigeria. From the findings, it was observed that conflicts within and around us could turn people’s intention from creative production to creative destruction, which could also soiled deep into our personal, social, and political orientation. With the help of the therapeutic packages, youths’ maladaptive behaviour could be properly managed. The findings have shown that the treatment packages could be used as veritable tools in equipping adolescents International Journal of Applied Psychology 2014, 4(6): 214-222 221 with necessary skills that could be used to expedite some kinds of cognitive processes such as positive moods, decision-making, problem-solving, self-control, and self-reinforcement skills, therefore, bringing about better future and peaceful co-existence among the people of the world. It is therefore suggested that all stakeholders in the training of youths for better tomorrow especially school counsellors, counselling psychologists should update their knowledge and skills on the use of some of these treatment packages that could help adolescents improve their psychological well-being, enhance relationships, and live a meaningful and fulfilled life. 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