Psychological counseling to reduce middle school students' cheating
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Applied Psychology 2015, 5(5): 115-118 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20150505.01 Psycholax Training to Reduce Cheating Behaviour among High School Students Listri Laila Tamami*, Idha Nur Rahmawati, Yuka Dewingga, Indra Permana, Giska Mutia Ramadhani Psychology Department, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Abstract Cheating is a familiar phenomenon in education. Cheating is dishonest behaviour to achieve a profit (Eric et al. in Hartanto, 2012). The strategies of cheating behaviour are writing down the formulas on small paper or tables, bringing the textbook to the exam room, working together with friends during the test, and so on. The habit of cheating is caused by two factors, namely internal and external factors. This research aims to investigate the effect of psycholax training among high school students and their parents. The researcher focuses on high school students because this phase is a transition period to adulthood phase where the personality and habits begin to form fixed. The psycholax is an abbreviation of psycho education and relaxation, offering two sub training for subjects of cheating behaviour and parents. This study is conducted in order to explore the proper method in reducing cheating behaviour of high school students and increase the understanding of the parents for positive supporting the students’ achievement. The research method is an experiment with pre-test to post-test control group design. The data collection techniques are cheating scale for students and a questionnaire for parents assessing their positive support. Analysis of the data used is the SPSS 16.0 software. Keywords Cheating, Psycho-education, Relaxation, Students, Parents 1. Introduction Cheating is not a new issue in education. According to Eric et al. in Hartanto (2012), cheating is dishonest effort in gaining some advantages. Sari and Gusniarti (2008) find cheating ways in Indonesia such as bring the small notes, write down the formulas on the table, and bring the note books to the exam room which is the extreme way of cheating. This fact is in contrast with the education purpose mentioned in the preamble of 1945 Constitution which is to develop the nation’s intellectual life (educate the generation of nation). Meanwhile the term of to educate itself is never terminated by the highest academic rank or the academic rank gained through cheating. Schab (in Sujana and Wulan, 1994) found 93% students declare that cheating is normal behaviour and as part of life. This statement is reinforced by Hartanto (2012) mentions that cheating behaviour is often done by almost all of the students from elementary school (SD) to post graduate (S2 and S3). Those facts show that cheating behaviour in Indonesia has been happening for years and also indicating moral crisis in education aspect. Meanwhile, these students are the next generation who will lead Indonesia development. Reflecting from the study, this becomes a problem for * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Listri Laila Tamami) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2015 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved educators (teacher), government, parents and society to establish the importance of honest behaviour as one of moral characters. The researchers take senior high school students as the sample because they are at transition period and can’t stand toward changes and demands like demands of high academic ranks which comes from the parents and teachers, and also demand of the future career which requires high academic rank. Sari and Gusniarti (2008) explain that at these ages students face runaway phase to get attention, safety, and willingness to exlplore the interaction with the world which is the reason for students to do violation such as cheating. Psycholax (psycho-education and relaxation) is two kinds of exercises targeted students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects in order to reduce and even terminate the internal and external aspects of cheating behaviour. Psycho-education is giving both parents and students information about cheating behaviour, its effect and effort to overcome it. Relaxation is a therapy to prepare student’s mental in doing the homework and exam without cheating. The problem in this research is whether the psycholax training is able to reduce the senior high school student cheating behaviour and whether psycho-education can give the understanding to parents to accept student achievement positively or not. The objective of the research is to find the right method to reduce the high school students cheating behaviour and improve the positively understanding the students achievement by parents. 116 Listri Laila Tamami et al.: Psycholax Training to Reduce Cheating Behaviour among High School Students 2. Theoretical Frame Work 2.1. Cheating Behaviour Cheating is dishonest action to gain some advantages (Eric et al. in Hartanto, 2012). Dellington (in Kushartanti, 2009) mentions that cheating behaviour is an effort to be succes by cheating or dishonest ways. According to Azwar (2003), the aspects of cheating behaviour are: a. Behaviour intensities, is the belief that the behaviour can lead toward the expected or unnecessary result. b. Subjective norms, is the belief toward behaviour which is normative (behaviour desired by other) and motivation to take an act as expected. c. Control behaviour, is the past experience and the individual presupposition toward how hard and easy the application of the desired behaviour. Hethering and Feldman (in Anderman and Murdock, 2007) group the cheating behaviour into four group as follows: 1. Individualistic-opportunistic is student’s behaviour where they open the note to change the answer when the teacher is leaving the exam room while the test is in process. 2. Independent-Planned is planned plan to cheat in test room using well prepared notes even the answers of the test. 3. Social-Active is cheating behaviour which is copying other student’s answers by asking, peeking and copying their answer sheet. 4. Social-passive is allowing other students to copy, peek, and ask the answers. According Hartanto (2012) there are internal and external factors cause the cheating behaviour. The internal factors are such as low self-efficacy, low academic capability, time management and procrastination behaviour. Meanwhile, the pressure from other students, parents, unclear school rules, and indecision of action of teacher toward students who commit cheating behaviour are the external factors that cause cheating behaviour. 2.2. Psycho-education Goldman and Quin (in Bastable, 2002) say that Psycho-education is education for people who experience psychiatric disorders in some areas of study that will help them to reach the goal of treatment and rehabilitation. Meanwhile, psycho-education in this research was given to the research subject that are students and their parents about all of the information of cheating behaviour, the impact and efforts to deal with it. 2.3. Relaxation Relaxation is a relaxed condition of muscle after stretching, while relaxation therapy is a therapy which is pointed toward an effort or teaching the patients to take arrest and relax with the assumption that the muscle in relax condition so that it can reduce the psychological tension (Chaplin, 2005). Relaxation is an exercise to reduce the stress which is divided into four categories (Hartono, 2011): a. Muscle relaxation The body in relax condition is the goal of this relaxation which is gained by repeatedly holding the arm and sleeve then release it. b. Relaxation with breathing exercise The relaxation which can reduce the tension effectively, breathing as usual, taking a deep breath then slowly breathing it out through the mouth. This relaxation can be done while sitting or lying down and imagining the beautiful and lovely scenery. c. Relaxation with Hypnosis/autosuggestion This relaxation can be done by breathing slowly and relax. While exhaling slowly, imagine a positive/good condition. This relaxation method can be done based on the individual belief and will bring benefit if it is done regularly. It’s called relaxation of hypnosis /autosuggestion. d. Relaxation in other ways This relaxation can be done by doing activity such as singing, walking, sitting while enjoying the beautiful scenery or doing favourite activities. 2.4. Psyco-education and Relaxation Psycho-education’s goal is educating patients who have psychiatric problem in courses and will help them receive healing and rehabilitation. The variable taken is cheating behaviour. Psycho-education targets cognitive cheaters at senior high schools which covers things such as informing students about the importance of acting honestly when doing exam or homework, setting cheating indicators categorizing what are said as cheating and categorized as cheating, and giving ways of how to study effectively by managing time so that the students will not do cheating anymore. Psycho-education also targets parents in order to give them understanding about cheating phenomenon in school and how to reduce the external factor of cheating. This can be done by giving a positive behaviour toward student’s achievement, and by giving moral education from parents to students. Relaxation therapy is a therapy which is focused on teaching patients on how to take rest and relax based on the assumption that relaxed muscle can help reduce psychological tension. The relaxation is intended to reduce the risk caused by internal cheating behaviour factor such as anxiety or worry toward low rank, lack of confidence, low self-efficacy, low academic rank, time management, and procrastination (Hartanto, 2012). The researchers want to find out whether the internal factor of cheating behaviour can be reduced or even terminated through relaxation therapy. 2.5. Psycholax Training Psyco-education and Relaxation (psycholax) can be applied through training to students. Sudjana (2007) International Journal of Applied Psychology 2015, 5(5): 115-118 117 mentioned that training is learning effort which is held by organization (agency, government, non-governmental organization, company) to fullfill the organization goals. A successful training is when it is able to reveal facts or performances done by human resources which are like what’s desired by the organization which holds the training (Sudjana, 2007). Psycholax is two kind of training which is targeted to senior high school students which covers cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects in order to reduce or terminate the internal and external cheating behaviour factors. The training is given for one month. The first two weeks are used to give the training and the training room for the students and the parents is separated because the material given is different. The last two weeks are used for the relaxation to face the exams, which are breathing relaxation and hypnosis/ autosuggestion relaxation each. 3. Research Stages 3.1. Outcome The research outcome is that the training can make the cheating behaviour among the subjects of the research, who are the senior high school students, is reduced or even terminated. Meanwhile, the parents will understand the cheating phenomenon in education and its external factors and they are able to control them by building positive attitude toward the students’ school achievement and giving moral education for them. 3.2. Research Indicator The triumph of psycholax for students can be seen through post-test result given by the researcher which shows the decrease of cheating behaviour intensity than the one of the pre-test result, or even the cheating behaviour can be terminated completely. Otherwise, psycholax for parents will be considered a success if the questionnaire shows that parents have positive behaviour toward student’s school achievement. The research stage starts by surveying the targeted senior high schools and then selecting the class as the subject of the research (using cluster random sampling) and sharing the scale of cheating behaviour to each student. There are twenty students involved, ten of them holding the highest ranks of the cheating behaviour are used as the experiment group while the rest are used as control group. The experiment group is given the psycholax training 4 times, done twice in two weeks and the training room for the students and the parents is separated because the material given is different. Next, to pass the exam, the students are given the relaxation therapy in the form of giving breathing practice and hypnosis relaxation which is given two weeks after the psycho-education is given. Finally, the cheating behaviour scale is re-administered the next week after that. On the other side, the control group is not given any treatment but they have to do the pre-test and post-test. X1 T X2 Y1 Y2 Explanation : X1 : Experiment group Pre Test X2 : Experiment group Post Test T : Treatment Y1 : Control Group Pre Test Y2 : Control Group Post Test 3.3. Technique of Data Collection The research instrument is pre-test and post-test scale. These scales are written favourable statements (supporting the described attributed scaled) used to gather information about behaviour indicator which is related to the attribute. The scale is four possible answers which are flexibly chosen by the research subjects ranging from very suitable (VS), suitable (S), unsuitable (U) and Very Unsuitable (VU). Each answer has each score with same range interval and the subject chooses one answer from four possible answers. The instrument for measuring parents’ positive behaviour toward their children is questionnaire. 3.4. Data Analysis The data analysis is using SPSS16.0 software program and the hypothesis is tested using non-parametrical form because of the respondents of the experiments are less than 30 respondents. 118 Listri Laila Tamami et al.: Psycholax Training to Reduce Cheating Behaviour among High School Students 3.5. Research Agenda Here is the time table of research agenda in 18 weeks. MONTH Activity 1 2 3 4 5 Research Preparation Administrative Preparation First Survey Of Data Resource Research Implementation Permit taking Pre-test Implementation of the psycho- education training for parents Implementation of psycho-education training for students Implementation of Relaxation training Post Test Evaluation Data Analysis Preparation of report writing Report Writing REFERENCES  Anderman, E. M. & Murdock, T. B. (2007). Psychology of Academic Cheating. San Diego, C.A.: Elsevier  Azwar, S. (2003). Sikap Manusia Teori dan Pengukurannya. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Offset.  Bastable, S. B. (2002). Perawat sebagai Pendidik: Prinsip-prinsip Pengajaran & Pembelajaran. Jakarta: EGC.  Chaplin, J P. (2005). Kamus Lengkap Psikologi. Jakarta: Rajawali Pres  Hartanto, D. (2012). Bimbingan & Konseling: Menyontek Mengungkap Akar Masalah dan Solusinya. Jakarta: Indeks.  Hartono, L. A. (2011). Stress & Stroke. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.  Kushartanti, A. (2009). Perilaku Menyontek Ditinjau dari Kepercayaan Diri. Jurnal Psikologi Indigenous. Vol. 11 no. 2: hal. 38-46.  Sari, Putri Aprilia; Uly Gusniarti. (2008). Hubungan Kepercayaan Diri dengan Perilaku Mencontek pada Siswa SMK. Skripsi mahasiswa fakultas Psikologi Universitas Islam Indonesia Yogyakarta.  Sudjana. (2007). Media Pengajaran. Jakarta: Sinar Baru Algesindo.  Sujana, Y.E. & Ratna Wulan. (1994). Hubungan antara kecenderungan pusat kendali dengan intensi menyontek. Jurnal Psikologi. Vol. XXI no. 2.
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