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Influence of group counseling training based on choice theory on self-control and resilience of municipal staff (case study: staff of Tehran Municipal District 4)

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Applied Psychology 2017, 7(4): 96-100 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20170704.03 The Effect of Group Counseling Training Based on Choice Theory on the Amount of Self-control and Hardiness in Municipality Staff (Case Study: Tehran Municipal Region 4 Staff) Ali Salimi*, Sara Haghighat Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran Abstract The purpose of current research is the effect of group Counseling based on choice theory on the amount of self-control and hardiness in Tehran Municipal Region 4 staff. The current research method in terms of the functional goal and in terms of implementation technique of semi-trial was with the control group. For this purpose, 30 municipality employees who had psychological problems, through sampling method based on goal or available were selected and placed into two groups of experiment and control (15 people). The used tool in this study, was kobasa hardiness questionnaire (1988) and Tanji. et al self-control. (2004). Participants were trained for 8 sessions of 90 minutes for 2 months by group Counseling based on choice theories. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA test. The findings showed that the average scores of hardiness and self-control in the experimental group, had a significant difference in post-test phase, than control group (p <0.001). The research findings that suggest the effect of group Counseling based on the choice theory on the increase of self-control and hardiness in municipality staff. Due to the effect of the intervention of group Counseling based on the choice theory on increase of staff self-control and hardiness should be more noted to the role of this theory as educational and therapeutic strategies in staff. Keywords Group Counseling based on choice theory, Self-control, Hardiness 1. Introduction Low self-control of employees and staff of companies and agencies causes lack of being responsible and reduction of operational efficiency in them. As Glasser has mentioned in management without force and compulsion book (2008), because of the external control by the dominant and master and ignoring the employees basic needs (the need of freedom, power, entertainment, accrual, survival), the challenge of balancing job and family roles which naturally is due to the employees heavy burden of responsibility on the family are more obvious. Also Glaser emphasizes that if managers of companies and factories in dealing with employees and their subordinates rather than using the language of external control use of internal control (Choice Theory), increase operational efficiency, and as a result causes job satisfaction in them (2004). So self-control is an external care which based on, assigned tasks is done and abnormal and illegal behavior is left without being supervision or external control. * Corresponding author: shafieee2017@gmail.com (Ali Salimi) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved When someone oblivious to the external control, spend its effort to doing works that their responsibilities has been given on him and doesn’t commit an offense such as low working and carelessness have internal control. In other words, when controlling factor of outside transferred inside of humans, so that the person with the authority and knowledge to evaluate and modify its function in the frame of specific standards and in the direction of the desired goals, self-control is realized. In this case, an external supervision in the fulfillment of such behavior that involve doing duty and stop doing offense, has no role and only is internal care that causes mentioned behavior (Janbozorgi, 2010). Also important differences of individual and measurable behavioral characteristics are called self-control. Self-control shows the degree of accordance of its behavioral characteristics with existing condition and position (Krenter & Kenek, 2005). Self-control, defined as exertion its own control by own (Mooraven & Bamest, 2000). Another important structures that in this research investigated in municipality staff, is hardiness. Hardiness is a psychological concept, which refers to specific and stable method of individual in reaction to life events and is a constellation of personality characteristic (Kobasa, 1979) that of theories of existential personality and health making (Antonorsky, 1990) International Journal of Applied Psychology 2017, 7(4): 96-100 97 has spread in the aspects of compatibility with stressful life events (Clark & Hartma 1996) Quoted from (Izakian, 2002). This structure has been constituted of three interdependent components (commitment), (control) and (challenge) (Izakian, 2002). Commitment is the opposite concept of despond, control is the opposite concept of disability and challenge is the opposite concept of a sense of threat or fear. hardiness people are who that simply has commitment against own actions and behavior and believe that, life events are controllable and predictable and consider changes in life and need to adaptation with it to a kind of opportunity and challenge for further growth, rather than consider it as a threat for own life (Florian, et al., 2000). In the present world due to the expansion of urban life and the pain and sufferings resulting from it in dimensions of environmental, social, cultural and economic lots of people get involved with different psychological problems that has been affected their individual and social life and created problems for themselves and people around them. Accordingly, this affair has more importance for people who have more contact with citizens that municipal employees are one of these people. Including the created problems in people is the lack of proper context of control and hardiness in them that should be done effective proceedings in this context, and testing efficient methods in this context has special place. One of these methods is using of group counseling based on the choices that cause used of several people comments, and among them selected and used the most appropriate method which the current research also is based on the importance of this issue and expressed problems has proceeded to investigation the effect of training of group counseling based on choice theory on the amount of self-control and hardiness in Tehran Municipal Region 4 staff. Different treatment approaches such as cognitive-behavioral approach, treatment based on acceptance and commitment, mutual behavior analysis and ...in examining the employee’s problems of companies, institutions and factories has been investigated, but the approach of group Counseling based on choice theory has been used less. According to the mentioned subjects the main problem of this study is that, the training of group Counseling based on choice theory to the amount of self-control and hardiness is effective in municipality staff? 2. Theoretical Foundations and Background of the Research Kobasa (1979) in one of his research on 670 middle managers and above in a public welfare Institute of Illinois state that in spite of changes in life and existence of high levels of pressure, were experienced low levels of illness were obviously different from the managers which encountered with pressure levels but, much more serious fell sick. Interestingly, those who fell sick in reaction to pressure less obligated themselves and emotionally less engaged in their work and social life, those who faced the same pressure but remained healthy. For example, a manager instead of dealing with the problem with his wife and trying to solve it, as a result, the victim was ill and avoided of facing and resolving dispute. Managers in spite of experiencing similar levels of pressure who remained healthy on the other hand, attempt to resolving dispute. No wonder those who that faced with pressure from weakness after that fell much sick with more alternations and felt that they have less control of external events. Hardiness is something beyond the three attributes: commitment, control and challenge. Kobasa et al (1981) argue that the flexibility of hard people psychological, only are not through the effects of solitary these three components, but via method is cope with a certain responsibility that with the dynamic combination of these three attributes is consistent (Parker & Rendall, 1988). In fact hardiness is a structural unit that deals with the integration of its components. In other words, hardiness destroys the differences of its components and in them creates a similarity (Kobasa et al. 1981, Quoted from Izakian 2002). Choice Theory is based on this principle that because we are social beings inherently, we need to be kind and see love. Glasser believes that the need for be kind and belonging is the first need, because we need to people to satisfy other needs (2000). In the meantime satisfying these needs is more difficult than others because we should have a adjuvant person to help us satisfy this need (Carey 2005, Quoted from Seyed Mohammadi 2009). Choice Theory announces that we have been born as a blank slate to wait till the forces of surrounding world make us motivated externally. Rather, we have born with five needs that encoded genetically: survival, love and belonging, power or progress, freedom or independence and fun that excited us in life (Carey 2005, Quoted from Seyed Mohammadi 2009). Gholami et al (2016) in an article have proceeded to investigation the effect of group training of Glasser's Choice Theory to reduce the couple's emotional boredom which the results Indicates that group training of Glasser's Choice Theory was effective on reducing of couple's emotional boredom <0.05. Accordingly, we conclude practice of the training Glasser's Choice Theory principles and techniques establish the intimate relationship between couples and also create satisfactory mood in their lives and as a result reduce their emotional boredom. Gholami et al (2016) in an article have proceeded to investigation the effect of group training of Glasser's Choice Theory to reduce the couple's marital boredom which its clear results is that group training of Glasser's Choice Theory was effective on reducing of couple's marital boredom (p <0.05). Accordingly, we conclude practice of the training Glasser's Choice Theory principles and techniques establish the intimate relationship between couples and also create satisfactory mood in their lives and as a result reduce their boredom. Tahmaseby Keyhani et al (2015) in a research has been proceeded to investigation of the effect of group vocational counseling based on Krambolts social learning theory on Indecision of vocational of high school students which results indicated that the effect of group vocational 98 Ali Salimi et al.: The Effect of Group Counseling Training Based on Choice Theory on the Amount of Self-control and Hardiness in Municipality Staff (Case Study: Tehran Municipal Region 4 Staff) counseling based on Krambolts social learning theory have had significant effect on reduction of indecision of vocational of high school students. 3. Research Hypothesis 1. Training of group Counseling based on choice theory on the amount of self-control in municipality staff is effective. 2. Training of group Counseling based on choice theory on the amount of hardiness in municipality staff is effective. 4. Methodology current research is a semi-experimental study, research design consists of pre-test and post-test with control group which is composed of two groups, and both groups tested two times. Statistical Society of current research was all employees of Tehran Municipal Region 4 in 2016-2017. Using sampling method based on goal or in available among municipality staff, according to the considered criteria 30 members of these staff were selected randomly and divided into two groups of experiment and control (15 people for each group) Then hardiness and self-control questionnaire, were taken at first and before conducting the group Counseling from both subject groups, then the examination group of training group received consultation based on choice theory in 8 sessions of 90 minutes in 2 months and control group received no training during this time. At the end was token a hardiness and self-control questionnaire of both groups again and scores were recorded. Obtained data from implementation of this research by using of inferential statistics (analysis of multivariate covariance (MANCOVA) was used to examining the hypothesis. All operations of statistical analysis were conducted with the help of 22SPSS software. 5. Findings Research hypothesis 1 Training of group Counseling based on choice theory on the amount of self-control in municipality staff is effective. In order to investigating this research hypothesis which training of group Counseling based on choice theory is on the amount of self-control in municipality staff; Self-control scores between the experimental and control groups were compared by using of covariance analysis. The results of this method in Table 1 show that there is a significant difference between the scores of experimental and control groups (F = 20.52, p <0.001). This result show that the training of group Counseling based on choice theory is effective on the amount of self-control in municipality staff and research hypothesis was confirmed. Accordingly the increasing use of method of group Counseling based on the choice method can be increased the amount of self-control in people and improved the patience and mood in interpersonal relationships and create the context to increase the proportional interaction between the individuals and ensure the healthy and succulent society. Research hypothesis 2 Training of group Counseling based on choice theory on the amount of hardiness in municipality staff is effective. In order to investigating this research hypothesis which training of group Counseling based on choice theory is on the amount of hardiness in municipality staff; hardiness scores between the experimental and control groups were compared by using of covariance analysis. The results of this method in Table 2 show that there is a significant difference between the scores of experimental and control groups (F = 22024, p <0.001). This result show that the training of group Counseling based on choice theory is effective on the amount of hardiness in municipality staff and research hypothesis was confirmed. Accordingly, the increasing use of method of group counseling based on the choice method can be reduced the amount of hardiness ant create the context to increasing use of softness and improving the relations between individuals. Table 1. The results of covariance analysis of self-control variable scores Variable Source of changes Self-control Group Total Error Sum of squares 89/8656 90/11388 /00400709 Degree of freedom 1 27 30 Squares average 89/8656 81/421 F Significance level Eta coefficient /52 001/0 0/43 20 Table 2. The results of covariance analysis of hardiness variable scores Variable Source of changes Hardiness Group Error Total Sum of squares 5547/13 6734/13 164718/00 Degree of freedom 1 27 30 Squares average 5547/13 294/41 F 22/24 Significance level 0/001 Eta coefficient 0/45 International Journal of Applied Psychology 2017, 7(4): 96-100 99 6. Conclusions 7. Suggestions Based on the obtained results from the implementation of research, variable of training of group counseling based on Choice Theory has been affected the dimension of self-control in the staff . Comparison of adjusted averages of experimental and control groups showed that the implementation of the dimension of self-control in the staff variable causes that the average scores of dimension of selfcontrol to increase in the examination group compare with the control group, so training of group Counseling based on choice theory is effective on the amount of self-control in municipality staff. Among shamsian (2015), Abol ghasemi. (2015), Sadeghi Bayeghi et al (2014), Nodehi (2014), Shams al-Dini (2012), (Glasser, 2006) and (Boldingh, 2004) researches, training of group Counseling based on choice theory is favorable on the amount of hardiness in municipality staff. Also according to the results training of group counseling based on Choice Theory variable has impressed hardiness dimension in staff. Comparison of adjusted averages of experimental and control groups showed that the implementation of training of group counseling based on Choice Theory variable causes that the average scores of dimension of hardiness increase in the examination group compare with the control group. So training of group Counseling based on choice theory is effective on the amount of hardiness in municipality staff. Review of research record showed that researchers also have been achieved to similar results. Among researches of Ghanbari Nejad (2011), Sheikh Sari and Esmaeili (2010), Kohlhof, luber, Pardyny and Deskory (2013), Grossa et al (2010) and Lloyd (2005), Based on the effect of group Counseling based on choice theory on the amount of hardiness in staff is favorable. Accordingly, the group counseling method leads to this affair which the most appropriate method selected and investigated through group Counseling and become the underlying of the best method in the people performance in self-control dimension that has much efficiency in reducing the social harms. Also in context of this group counseling hardiness can convert the direction of interaction and behavior of individuals to the smooth operation and create efficient and succulent society. The new results of this research showed that the method of group counseling based on the choice can be used among the employees of public and private organizations, especially private organizations and this affair that has used of two indicators of hardiness and self-control simultaneously is of the distinction of the other researches. in Iran in the organizations proceeded less to the group proceedings and specially consultation proceedings and we are beholder of very much mentally unpleasantness in the organizations which doing such research can improve these problems and reduced the hardiness and increased the amount of self-control that research was present in this regard and has an important position which is very important. 1. The implementation of longitudinal research that can investigate these differences is the suggestions of this research. 2. It seems to created difference in the amount of hardiness and self-control can be repeated in another study with a larger population, and more age limitation. 3. Comparing other psychological treatments with the training of choice theory concepts in hardiness and self-control increase is other suggestions of this study. 4. Since the awareness of the amount of the severity of needs and internal control psychological is a predictor factor of people at risk, in consultations these factors can be identified and needful awareness is managed. 5. According to the two fundamental issues of hardiness and self-control in prediction of processes related to peoples relationships in the workplace is felt. REFERENCES [1] Abolqasemi, Shahnam (2015), Comparing the effect of training consultation based on choice theory and self-assertion training on the amount of satisfaction and job exhaustion of Rasht health center staff; master's and psychology thesis of Tonekabon, winter 2015. [2] Izakian, Mohsen. (2002), hardiness. Roshd Farhang publications. [3] John Bozorgi, Masoud, Rafiee Honar, Hamid. (2009), investigating the relationship of Islamic religious orientation and its agent, and self-control among women and men, as well as the relationship between these factors with economic and social level, Psychology and Religion periodical Page 31 to 42 spring 2009. [4] Seyyed Mohammadi, Yahya (2015), Diagnostic and Statistical guid of Mental Disorders, published by the Nashr Ravan, fifth edition, Summer 2015. [5] Shamsuddini, Mahboube, Askari, Fahime, Raqibi, Mahvash (2012), investigation of relationship between self-control with creativity of Kerman PNU staff. quintaple Conference of national features of evolution in Iranian character and progress of Iran's, Aras, University of Tehran Aras International Campus: 2012. 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