Effectiveness of guidance and consultation in student behavior management in public middle schools in Kenya
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Applied Psychology 2018, 8(1): 6-11 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20180801.02 Effectiveness of Guidance and Counseling in the Management of Student Behaviour in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya Pamela Awuor Onyango, Peter Jairo Aloka*, Pamela Raburu Psychology & Educational Foundations, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science & Technology, Kenya Abstract There have been efforts aimed at solving student behaviour problems in secondary schools in Kenya. However, this has realized very little achievement. The current study investigated the effectiveness of guidance and counseling in the management of student behaviour in secondary schools in Kenya. The study was informed by assertive discipline model. Mixed method approach with concurrent triangulation design was used for the study. The population of the study was composed of 431 teachers 40 heads of guidance and counseling and 40 Deputy Principals. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select teachers, deputy principals and heads of guidance and counseling. Krejcie and Morgan sample size determination table was used in the study to determine a sample size of 28 deputy principals, 28 heads of guidance and counseling and 196 teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules and document analysis guides. Reliability was ascertained through split half method, and a reliability coefficient of 0.871 was realized. In order to ensure face validity of the instruments, the researcher sought expert judgment from university lecturers. Descriptive statistics and correlational analysis were used to analyze quantitative data while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework. The study established that there was a correlation coefficient of r=0.503 between guidance and counselling and the management of student behaviour. The findings of the current study may help the Ministry of education in the formulation of policies relevant to the management of student behaviour in secondary schools. Keywords Effectiveness, Guidance and Counseling, Management, Student Behaviour, Public Secondary Schools, Kenya 1. Introduction Other than gathering students for learning, teachers also solve behaviour problems among them (Nakpodia, 2012). Schools face more complex acts of misconduct than have been previously experienced. Due to this, some members of the society propose that students misconduct should be solved through corporal punishment while others propose that discipline should be instilled using other different methods ( Mugabe and Maphosa, 2013). Leroy (2011) study in Trinidad argues that corporal punishment is a way of teaching children a lesson. On the contrary, Smith (2006) study believes that corporal punishment violates international conventions and is cruel, degrading and inhuman because it hurts and embarrasses children. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) opposed the use of corporal punishment in its official report of the 7th session of November 1994 (Symonides and Vladimir, 2000). * Corresponding author: email@example.com (Peter Jairo Aloka) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2018 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved The Government of South Africa has taken several measures aimed at implementing the prohibition of corporal punishment in schools; a manual for teachers on alternatives to corporal punishment has been published and widely distributed. Additionally, many teachers have acted as trainers of their peers on alternatives to corporal punishment (Soneson, 2005). In Uganda, stakeholders have divergent opinion on the use of physical punishment. Others support its use while others view it as a coercive way of managing student behavior. Although corporal punishment has been banned in Egypt, some homes and schools still use it (Wasef, 2011). The current study was informed by Assertive Discipline Model by Lee and Marlene Canter (Canter and Canter, 2001). The model consists of a 5 step discipline plan which is accompanied by consequences for breaking the rules. A student who infringes on the rules is first warned, after which failure to comply is followed by a ten- minute time out. If the student does not change, a 15 minute time out follows. Fourth, the student’s parents are summoned. Finally, the student is sent to the principal’s office (Canter and Canter, 2001). Deidra (2013) study in America established that Positive Behaviour Interventions and Support (PBIS) contribute positively to student behaviour behaviour and maintains International Journal of Applied Psychology 2018, 8(1): 6-11 7 effective student behavioral support. Additionally, the study findings confirmed that student behaviour problems affect academic performance and instructional time. In another study, Nassey (2012) in New Zealand established that teachers’ use of classroom based management strategies was appropriate and that teachers believed that through the methods, they monitored and communicated to their students frequently during the lessons. Another study by Yaworski (2012) in USA established that classrooms encountered a steady change of disciplinary options over the years. Despite the fact that corporal punishment has been banned and teachers have been trained on alternative corrective measures and how to implement them, several behavioural problems were still being experienced in the classrooms. Futhermore, Brown (2013) in New Zealand established that positive reinforcement approaches effectively increased positive behaviour, which led to clear and positive communication between teachers and students. In addition, Klopfer (2014) revealed that training on proactive behavioural management had positive influence on teachers’ self efficacy, emotions, teaching style and reactions towards children and their use of management strategies in the classroom. Another study by Golker, Alavijeh, Gasempoor, Amiri and Zarrin (2012) in Iran indicated that to a large extent teachers used prophylactic methods of discipline in their classrooms. Renuka (2013) in India established that counseling was effective in solving adjustment difficulties like appetite disturbance, concentration problems and depression that were very common among newly admitted college students. Additional findings confirmed that constructive support from individual counseling had positive effect on academic performance and contributed to positive academic performance. Krieger (2011) in Toronto revealed that in-service training on proactive classroom management was beneficial to teachers since it effected change in student behaviour by reducing behaviour problems. Another study by Nweze and Okolie (2014) in Nigeria revealed that counseling services in schools are instrumental in career decision making. Additional findings indicated that inadequacy of guidance and counseling resources affects students in career decision making. Osakwe (2013) in Nigeria established that guidance and counseling requires adequate funding. Similarly, reorientation through counseling eliminates disciplinary problems and motivation of teachers makes them pay attention to the emotional and psychological needs of students. Another study by Sekuwi and Naluwemba (2014) established that there are many alternatives to corporal punishment and stakeholders have divergent views about them. Auni, Jepchirchir and Ong’unya (2014) in Kenya established that lack of facilities, inadequately trained teachers and ineffective strategies hampered students’ social adjustment. In a different study, Mwangi (2014) established that counseling program built moral uprightness and courage in the learners. Additionally, it led to good value, positive attitude towards self discipline and enhanced change of behaviour. Another separate study by Afande (2015) established that effective guidance and counseling benefited pupils by developing skills in decision making, providing services and focusing on the need of pupils. 2. Research Methodology The current study employed mixed methods approach with concurrent triangulation design. Quantitative approach used in the research was based on variables which are measured through numbers that are analyzed by using procedures of statistical nature (Chifwambe, 2010). Quantitative approach leads to a clear collection and interpretation of data in the study context and results to easy understanding of the findings (Stake, 2010). The current study comprised a target population of 351 teachers, 40 heads of guidance and counseling and 40 deputy principals. The study used stratified random sampling technique in the identification of schools and their proportions. A sample size of 28 deputy principals, 28 heads of guidance and counseling and 196 teachers was obtained through Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample size determination table. In order to realize large amounts of information from a large sample of people, the researcher used questionnaires to collect quantitative data. The effectiveness of guidance and counseling questionnaire used a 5 point likert scale: SA (Strongly Agree), A (Agree), U (Undecided) D (Disagree), SD (Strongly Disagree). In addition, interview schedules were used to obtain detailed information that the questionnaires could not provide (Oso & Onen, 2011). Additional qualitative data was provided by document analysis guides. The researcher ensured validity by seeking expert judgement of two supervisors in the department of psychology and educational foundations of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology. Research instruments were piloted in 9% of the total population that was not involved in the study. Descriptive statistics and correlational analysis was used to analyze quantitative data while while qualitative data from interviews was analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). 3. Findings and Discussions The study established the effectiveness of guidance and counseling in managing student behaviour. The descriptive statistics are presented in Table 1: 8 Pamela Awuor Onyango et al.: Effectiveness of Guidance and Counseling in the Management of Student Behaviour in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya Table 1. Descriptive Statistics on Effectiveness of Guidance and Counseling Indicator Guidance and counseling is effective in managing student behaviour. Guidance and counseling has reduced tension and strikes in schools. Guidance and counseling helps students realize their mistakes. Guidance and counseling services helps students develop positive attitude towards school. Guidance and counseling makes students feel accepted by their teachers. SA 50(26.18%) 90(47.12% 46(24.08%) 82(42.93%) 60(31.41%) A 80(41.88%) 82(42.93%) 94(49.21%) 68(35.60%) 75(39.27%) U 30(15.71%) 6(3.14%) 28(14.66%) 5(2.62%) 30(15.71%) D 22(11.52%) 5(2.62%) 17(8.90%) 26(13.61%) 12(6.28%) SD 9(4.71%) 8(4.19%) 6(3.14%) 10(5.24%) 14(7.33%) From the findings it was established that more than half of the respondents 68.06 % (SA: 26.18; 41.88) agreed that guidance and counseling was effective in the management of student behaviour. The findings agree with Dauenhauer (2014) study in America that individual attention is useful addressing student behaviour. Additionally, Nweze and Okolie (2014) study in Nigeria confirms that guidance and counseling services are instrumental in academic performance, self understanding and career choice. This was also supported by Mwangi (2014) study in Kenya that guidance and counseling leads to positive attitude towards good value and self discipline. In contrast, Yaworski (2012) study in the United States maintains that although teachers have learnt non-violent methods of managing behaviour problems still persist in schools. Mbabazi & Bagaya (2013) study in Uganda also maintains that the way learners conform to the code of conduct is not dependent upon the strategy of guidance and counseling used. Qualitative findings from the interviews revealed that guidance and counseling enhances self esteem among the learners. The learners acquire evaluative aspect of their self concept, which makes them value themselves. Guidance and counseling develops positive self image and makes the learners feel that their teachers accommodate them and listen to them. Moreover, the use of guidance and counseling to mould learners has made them develop positive attitude towards that particular alternative corrective measure. Following is a respondent’s remark: Guidance and counseling makes students feel that they are worth being listened to, and somebody is paying attention to them. They are positive about guidance and counseling and many have changed as a result of being counseled [HOD 2]. The sentiments of Head of Department (HOD) 2 imply that guidance and counseling has positive effect on the behaviour of learners, because it makes them believe that they can be listened to. Another respondent concurred: Guidance and counseling enhances self esteem among the students. They have a sense of self worth and would always want to do the right thing [DP 5]. The views of HOD2 and DP 5 suggest that guidance and counseling makes learners feel important and to develop the desire to do the right thing. Deidra (2013) concurs that most positive behaviour intervention supports are instrumental in the management of student behaviour. Krieger (2011) study in Toronto agrees that student behaviour problems are reduced by proactive classroom management. However, Dodge (2011) study in America maintains that educators are not able to handle behaviour challenges. Moyo, Khewu & Bayaga (2014) study in South Africa also adds that though alternatives to corporal punishment exist, offences should be handled differently. Additionally, guidance and counseling causes self esteem amongst the learner, for it doesn’t inflict pain on them, as was observed by HOD 13: Guidance and counseling helps students develop self esteem. They learn not to repeat mistakes since guidance and counseling does not inflict pain [HOD 13]. The sentiments of HOD 13 imply that guidance and counseling makes learners acquire self esteem. This makes them feel that they too are recognized and they view themselves positively. This concurs with Daunhauer (2014) study in America which revealed that students who undergo guidance and counseling exhibit attitude change. Nassey (2012) study in New Zealand also maintains that classroom management strategies used by teachers have effect on the learners. However, Yaworski (2012) study in USA argues that the use of alternative corrective measures is not effective in the management of student behaviour. Chikwature and Oyedele (2016) study in Zimbabwe also argues that teachers do not possess the qualifications needed in carrying out guidance and counseling sessions, just as Kirangari (2014) study in Kenya agrees that guidance and counseling programs do not solve all cases of indiscipline in schools. Additional quantitative findings established that majority 90.05% (SA 47.12%, Agree 42.93%) of the respondents agreed that guidance and counseling had reduced strikes and tension in schools. It therefore implies that only a few respondents 9.95% (Undecided 3.14% Disagree 2.62, SA 4.19%) did not value the role of guidance and counseling in the management of student behaviour. However, the representation was negligible, implying that guidance and counseling played a big role in the management of strikes and tension in school. The findings on the vitality of guidance and counseling in the management of student International Journal of Applied Psychology 2018, 8(1): 6-11 9 behaviour concur with Noorudin (2014) study in Pakistan that guidance and counseling influences student behaviour. Brown (2013) study in New Zealand also agrees that alternative corrective measures result to positive communication between teachers and students. In contrast, Unal & Unal (2012) study in Turkey observes that teachers who are newly employed are not enthusiastic about the use of alternative corrective measures in the management of student behaviour. In addition, Kirangari (2014) study in Kenya concurs that behaviour problems continue to exist in schools, despite the use of alternative corrective measures. Qualitative findings from interviews revealed that guidance and counseling was very instrumental in shaping learners’ character, as was expressed by HOD 15: You really don’t need to scold that child for unacceptable behaviour. Sit the child down and give him or her ear. Give them an opportunity to be part of the solution to their problems. Listen to them. They change. Guidance and counselling enables them shed off undesirable behaviour [HOD 15]. The views of HOD 15 imply that guidance and counseling has great value in influencing the character of a learner. The findings are in agreement with Nassey (2012) study which supports the use of classroom based strategies. Brown 2013 study also agrees that classroom based strategies cause positive behaviour among the students. Nweze and Okolie (2014) study in Nigeria concurs that guidance and council is instrumental in career decision –making. On the contrary, Sekuwi and Naluwemba (2014) study in Uganda maintains that stakeholders in education hold conflicting views about alternatives to corporal punishment. This study finding is in line with Auni, Jepchirchir and Ongunya (2014) study which argues that guidance and counseling does not contribute positively to learners’ social adjustment. Additional study findings from document analysis guides established that guidance and counseling played a vital role in shaping the character of learners. The findings are in agreement with Dhaliwal (2013) study in India which maintains that supportive, close and positive relationship leads to successful management of challenging student behaviour. Ndagire (2012) study in Uganda also agrees that behaviour problems can be resolved through guidance and counseling. However, Hansen (2014) study in America opines that the usefulness of Positive Behavioural Interventions and support depends on the perception of teachers. This finding is in line with Nyarangi (2011) study in Kenya which argues that the implementation of guidance and counseling is not supported by principals and members of the board of management. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to carry out a correlation analysis to test the hypothesis that guidance and counseling was not effective in the management of student behaviour. The results are shown on table 2. The null hypothesis which stated that guidance and counselling was not effective in the management of student behaviour was rejected. This was reached through realization that there was a statistically significant relationship between guidance and counselling and management of student behaviour. A Pearsons’s Correlation Coefficient of r= 0.503 was obtained from the results. This implies that guidance and counselling is moderately effective in the management of student behaviour. On the same note, Renuka (2013) study in India agrees that guidance and counselling is instrumental in solving emotional and social problems. The same view is shared by Eliamani, Mghweno and Baguma (2014) study in Uganda that the study life of a student is moderately influenced by guidance and counselling. On the contrary, Nweze and Okolie (2014) study in Nigeria argues that the insufficiency and unavailability of counseling resources for teachers hampers career decision making among students. Auni, Jepchirchir and Ong’unya (2014) study in Kenya adds that guidance and counselling exhibits ineffective strategies. However, all the correlation coefficients related to students behaviour had statistical significance. This gives the connotation that guidance and counseling was found to be effective in managing student behaviour. Table 2. Correlation Analyses between Guidance and Counselling and Management of Student Behaviour Guidance and counseling Student behaviour Correlations Pearson Correlation Guidance and Counseling 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) 191 .503** .000 N 191 Students Behaviours . 503** .000 191 1 191 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The study used scatter plot too to support the study finding that guidance and counselling was effective in managing student behaviour. Figure 1. Scatter plot for Correlation between Guidance and Counseling and Management of Student Behaviour 10 Pamela Awuor Onyango et al.: Effectiveness of Guidance and Counseling in the Management of Student Behaviour in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya Table 2 shows a correlation coefficient of r=0.503 between guidance and counseling and the management of student behaviour. This implies that there is a positive correlation between guidance and counselling and the management of student behaviour. Although the correlation is moderate, it follows that guidance and counselling is effective in the management of student behaviour. Additional findings from figure 1 indicate that guidance and counselling is effective in the management of student behaviour. The study finding is supported by Deidra (2013) study in America which argues that many positive behaviour intervention strategies are instrumental in the management of student behaviour. Klopfer (2014) study in Toronto augments that teachers’ emotion and reactions towards children are dependent upon behavioural management courses. Omomia and Omomia (2014) study in Nigeria also agrees that students with consistent behavioural challenges need counselling support. On the contrary, Unal and Unal (2012) study in Turkey argues that teachers do not want learners to be allowed to express their inner feelings freely. Additionally, Sekuwi and Naluwemba (2014) study in Uganda argues that although corporal punishment has been banned, there exist several alternative corrective measures. 4. Conclusions & Recommendations The study findings found out that a statistically significant relationship existed between guidance and counseling and student behaviour management. A Pearson’s Correlation coefficient of r= 0.503 was arrived at, which suggested that guidance and counseling was moderately effective in the management of student behaviour. Guidance and counseling enabled the learners to acquire self esteem and positive attitude towards school. The findings of the current study may help the Ministry of education in the formulation of policies relevant to the management of student behaviour in secondary schools. REFERENCES  Afande, O. (2015). Effects of Guidance and Counseling on Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Makadara Primary Schools in Makadara Division of Nairobi Province. 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