Leadership and workplace values: key to the effectiveness of public and private schools
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Applied Psychology 2021, 11(1): 24-41 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20211101.03 Leadership Competencies and Work Place Values: Keys to School Effectiveness in Public and Private Schools Anamika Rai1,*, Anand Prakash2 1Department of Applied Psychology, Shyama Prasad Mukherji College for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi 2Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi Abstract The present study aimed to investigate teachers’ perception regarding their principal’s leadership competencies, work culture values and school effectiveness (SE). With the help of purposive sampling method 120 teachers were selected from different management type schools (i.e., central, state, state aided and private unaided). Findings reveal that maximum number of teachers perceived their principals’ as ‘capable and participative’. Regarding teachers’ work culture values, self-realization and socio-economic support were found to be highly valued and practiced. The patterns of mean scores on all the variables were found constantly high in central and private schools whereas low in state schools. Regression results revealed that self-realization values were found as a common predicting variable for almost all the components of SE. The critical perspective of these findings is useful in understanding how this set of key variables as a whole defines the effectiveness of schools at all levels. Keywords Transformational leadership competencies (TLC), Work culture values (WCV), School Effectiveness (SE), Principals and Teachers, Public and private schools 1. Introduction Initial decision to work on school effectiveness (SE) evoked many questions into my mind. How can we say that this school is better and this is not? What one may count in the defining frame of effective schools? What are those practices, which make school performance better? In the same line, Wyatt (1996) emphasized that after more than two decades of research into school effectiveness, it is important to question what we have learnt and achieved so far. He further states, ‘regardless of the voluminous literature on SE, we are not much further advanced from the state of affairs described in Ralph and Fennessy's (1983) critique – ‘much of the literature takes the form of reviews of reviews, with only a small number of highly influential empirical studies providing the "evidence" cited in paper after paper’ (in Wyatt, 1996). Cameron and Whetten (1983) argue, the definitions, models and criteria of organizational effectiveness are so diverse that a single clear definition is impossible, as organizations may have multiple and often contradictory goals at different levels. The closer view depicts that all schools are unique in their own ways, and many factors combine to make them what they are. In such condition, * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Anamika Rai) Received: Dec. 19, 2020; Accepted: Jan. 6, 2021; Published: Jan. 25, 2021 Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net stating that all schools work on a set pattern and fabricated with specific factors is neither easy nor correct. However, it is possible to identify a set of common characteristics like school culture, leadership, teachers’ trust in head teacher or their own colleagues, etc. (Uline, Miller & Tschannen-Moran, 1998) that may contribute to the effectiveness of the school. Literature suggests that different schools of thought/discipline have conceptualized SE in different ways. For instance, educationists have given more importance to enrollment, retention, and dropout rates (Kochan, Tashakkori, & Teddlie, 1996), whereas many have seen it in terms of students’ performance, academic achievement or success rate (Coleman et al., 1966; Mott, 1972). Among the existing measures of school effectiveness, student achievement, as operationalized by standardized scores in mathematics and reading seem to be the predominant measure (Peterson, 1984; Sweetland & Hoy, 2000). These two measures deal with the input and output aspects of SE. Others have viewed SE in terms of classroom pedagogy or teaching learning, the content aspect (Uline et al., 1998; Creemers, 1994; Cohen, 1983; and Scheerens, 1992) and in addition to this, large sections of management and educational researches have also viewed effectiveness in terms of process aspects and uses additional measures to evaluate school effectiveness (Sweetland & Hoy, 2000; Silins & Harvey, 1999). Uline, Miller and Tschannen-Moran (1998) have classified the measures of reading, writing and arithmetic as instrumental activities. They have also International Journal of Applied Psychology 2021, 11(1): 24-41 25 discussed an additional criterion to measure effectiveness and have named them as expressive activities. Expressive activities included teachers’ trust in colleagues and principal and school health (served as a basic framework of this current study) explained 72% of the variance in effectiveness (Uline et al., 1998). In Indian context, the term school effectiveness has been interchangeably used with school quality (Adams, 1997). Thus, it is imperative for us to review the growing international and national research literature on school quality as well in our endeavor to gain insights into the theoretical perspectives. In practice, quality and its concepts are usually defined as outputs, outcomes, processes or inputs. This refers to the degree to which the objectives are met or desired levels of accomplishment are achieved. Recent researches go beyond the prevailing trend of analyzing the impact of schools, classroom processes and education on students’ educational performance and move towards studying other factors those with-in schools, the identification of a reasonably consistent set of school characteristics that contribute to enhanced educational outcomes (Teddlie & Reynolds, 2000). We may say that in the intervening years, the factors of SE researches specifically in international context have explored a cluster of indicators by focusing more on process aspect. While measuring SE, the process model assumes that a school is effective if its internal functioning is smooth and "healthy". Therefore, according to this model, the internal organizational activities and practices in schools are regarded as important criteria of school effectiveness (Cheng 1993). Thus, it serves as a basic framework of this study. Review of enormous and vast researches on SE (Cheng, 1996; Mott, 1972; Reynolds, et. al., 1996; Sammons, et. al. 1995, 1999) has revealed that following the process model, researcher have identified effectiveness indicators in terms of leadership, school atmosphere, communication channels, participation etc. Perhaps Hechinger (1981) best summarizes the matter when he states, “I have never seen a good school with a poor principal or a poor school with a good principal”. In his pioneer study of effective schools placed leadership at the top of his list of characteristics that distinguished such institutions. Curran (1983) in placing the importance of the principal as being an active leader at the top of his list of 11 effective school factors noted, “Leadership is the ultimate necessity for any successful group, organization, or endeavor. Leadership competencies have been defined in many ways, but they are causally related to success or performance (Wright, 2008). According to Garman & Johnson, (2006) competencies are relevant outcome measures to assess knowledge, skills and abilities. Leadership competencies may be defined in terms of characteristics of a leader with behavioral implications that are thought to associate with successful performance of their job. As stated by Boyatzis (1982), competence means different things to different people. However, it is generally accepted as encompassing knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours that are causally related to superior job performance. A definition of "competency" adopted from Parry's (1998) work is "a cluster of related knowledge, attitudes, skills, and other personal characteristics that affects a major part of one's job, correlates with performance on the job, can be measured against well-accepted standards, can be improved via training and development and can be broken down into dimensions of competencies". The major components of competencies include: abilities, attitudes, behaviour, knowledge, personality and skills. Transformational leadership competencies framework shifts the focus from leading to building new leaders. James MacGregor Burns (1978), writing in his book ‘Leadership’ was the first to put forward the concept of ‘transforming leadership’. To Burns, transforming leadership is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents. Many have viewed it in altogether different shades. Like, Kouzes and Posner (2007, 2009) have viewed transformational leadership into five critical competencies i.e. modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, challenging the process, enabling others to act, and encouraging the heart. According to Bass & Avolio (1994, 1995) transformational leadership include five indices (5I’s), which are idealized influence (attributed), idealized influence (behavior), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration). Hooper and Potter (1997) extended this notion of transformational leadership by identifying seven key competencies, i.e. setting direction, setting an example, communication, alignment, bringing out the best in people, the leader as a change agent, and providing decision in a crisis and an ambiguous situations, of transcendent leaders. In an Indian scenario, Sinha (2004) has defined competencies as individual characteristics, which is causally related to effective or superior performance in a job or situation. He further states that competencies may be divided into two categories. First, the threshold competencies that are the essential characteristics, and second, the differentiating competencies, i.e. the factors that distinguish superior from average performers. There could be five types of competency characteristics in the main. They are the following: motives, traits, self-concept, knowledge, and skill. Out of these five, the skill and the knowledge may be regarded as belonging to the surface of the people and are more visible, whereas the self-concept, traits, and motives are relatively hidden and could be more difficult to access and develop. Hence, skill and knowledge competencies may be more amenable to training attempts and may be relatively easy to develop. Bitterová, Hašková and Pisonová (2014) described the quality of school leaders and managers as one of the fundamental factors that significantly affect the quality of teaching and learning processes at each level of the 26 Anamika Rai and Anand Prakash: Leadership Competencies and Work Place Values: Keys to School Effectiveness in Public and Private Schools education system. The authors carried out a study aimed at defining both the importance of specific items in a profile of a school leader's competence and the needs and requirements of school leaders derived from their actual daily practice. The results showed in the four areas of management area competence, practicing school leaders consider the most critical competencies of a school leader profile to establish motivational strategies focused on common school values, competency to create and develop an effective learning atmosphere for the learning of pupils and students, competency to clearly identify, distribute and assign resolutions. Jamal (2014) reviews research literature in order to evaluate the most successful leadership model in the current school management conditions. In order to achieve this objective, a consistent literature review was carried out on the following subjects: evolution of leadership; types of transformative and transactional leadership; the links between a leadership style and organizational variables; the relationship between value systems and leadership styles of school’s principles. During the study of leadership evolution, techniques, processes, models, and means are studied. The literary review indicates that transformational leadership essentially improves the functioning of school and teaching processes. it is determined that principals with a moral value system lean more towards a transformational leadership style and principals with a pragmatic value system lean more towards a transactional leadership style. In 2016, Goksoy, evaluated the levels of leadership competencies that the deputy principals experience, their impressions of their personal characteristics, and the organization's atmosphere. In the analysis, results were found that Deputy Principals regard themselves as leaders in terms of personal characteristics and behaviors. In terms of management, the competencies of deputy principals are: technical, interpersonal, conceptual and cognitive competencies. Trakšelys, Melnikova, and Martišauskienė (2016) took the development of competencies of school heads as an object of study, conceptualized in the form of paradigms of education management. It is argued that school leaders are responsible for controlling the educational process, managing and running the school, redesigning the school and setting the course. In addition, it is claimed that the introduction of an integral model of leadership (which incorporates instructional, transactional and transformative leadership) presupposes school progress in the structural change paradigm. It is disclosed that school heads must have a comprehensive capacity that requires those competencies under the conditions of structural change: management of educational process, strategic, operational, interpersonal, personal, continuous learning as well as dimensions of emotional intelligent, critical thinking and diagnostic competency. Lastly, as a mediating variable, culture has a powerful effect on the performance and long-term effectiveness of organizations (Cameron & Ettington, 1983). Schein (1985) contends that the most important function of a leader is the creation and molding of organizational cultures. They encourage autonomy and assists in creating such an organizational culture, which results in both leader and follower being elevated to a higher level of motivation and morality (Burns, 1978). Quality cultures are conducive to enhancing work environments and may have a positive impact with areas such as worker satisfaction, communication, effectiveness, innovation and creativity in the organizations (Schein, 1996). Abdullah, Ling, and Hassan (2018) identified the impact on the culture of teachers of the importance of teacher work. A total of 540 randomly chosen teachers were selected as respondents in the study from 36 secondary schools in Penang. The results of the study have shown that the working importance variables of teachers and school culture are at moderate levels. Furthermore, the findings also show the value of teachers' work, especially the dimensions of engagement, pride, improvement, and activity have a significant influence on school culture. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that educators need to learn, improve, and transform existing values so as to foster a better personality and add value to their working environment. Schein (1987) argues that those occupying the top positions have the largest span of control, greater access to resources and the highest visibility. Researchers have found leadership as a core construct influence the organizational culture. As Schein (1992) observes that organizational culture and leadership are intertwined and culture creation, culture evolution, and culture management are what ultimately define leadership. He illustrates this inter-connection by looking at the relationship between leadership and culture in the context of the organizational life cycle. Ö zgenel (2020) decides whether the school climate impacts school effectiveness. For this reason, the analysis used a hierarchical screening model for quantitative research. In the 2018-2019 academic year, the study was performed and 341 teachers participated voluntarily. Correlation and regression analysis analyzed the results. School environment predicts school performance, according to the findings. It was concluded that there is a positive and essential correlation between the efficacy of school and the principal behaviors of help and directive, and the behaviors of intimate and collegial teachers. In other words, at various levels and positively, the actions of supportive and directive principals and collegial teacher behaviors have influenced school performance. Thus, viewing the importance of leadership and organizational culture in understanding school effectiveness via process model and considering teachers and principals as the most stable entities and important stakeholders of the entire organization, this study tries to analyze the perceived school effectiveness along with transformational leadership competencies of principals and work culture values of teachers from their perspectives. International Journal of Applied Psychology 2021, 11(1): 24-41 27 Research Questions 1. What set of leadership competencies work in schools? 2. As a function of culture, what work related values are being practiced at schools? 3. Does the ownership of school like – government and private schools has any relationship with regard to the leadership competencies, cultural practices and its impact on school effectiveness? Objectives - The study focuses on these specific objectives as follows: 1. To understand transformational leadership competencies, work related values and school effectiveness in both public and private schools. 2. To explore the relationship and identify the predictors of school effectiveness from between the different dimensions of antecedent variables i.e. transformational leadership competencies, work culture values in both public and private schools. Variables - Antecedent Variables Transformational Leadership Competencies Organizational Culture Outcome Variable Organizational Effectiveness Proposed framework of the study In relation to the purpose of this study, a theoretical framework has been proposed to illustrate the vital link between the antecedent, intermediate and outcome variables in the form of a schematic diagram (fig 1) which shows the relationship between transformational leadership competencies and school effectiveness with a mediating role of organizational work culture values. Figure 1. Research Framework - Relationship between TLC & SE with a mediating variable of WCV 2. Method Design of the Study This study was ex-post facto in nature. All the teachers of urban higher secondary schools were considered as the population for this study. A sample of 120 teachers was drawn with the help of purposive sampling technique. Quantitative data was obtained from teachers by using standardized tools of transformational leadership competencies, work culture values and school effectiveness. 28 Anamika Rai and Anand Prakash: Leadership Competencies and Work Place Values: Keys to School Effectiveness in Public and Private Schools Sample selection Process The sample was drawn based on purposive sampling technique. As the number of government schools (3) and the number of those teachers who have served their institutions for at least 3 – 5 years were limited, care was taken to select the sample of at least 30 participants in each management type schools, so as to apply the inferential statistics successfully. The total sample was comprised of 120 teachers and their corresponding school principals of government and private higher secondary schools of Allahabad district. SCHOOLS BY MANAGEMENT TYPE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL (3) STATE (3) PRIVATE AIDED (3) UNAIDED (3) 12 (SCHOOLS) * 10 (TEACHERS) = 120 TEACHERS Figure 2. Sample selection process Measures used in Quantitative Study The following tools were used to study the perception of teachers regarding the role of principal’s leadership competencies and cultural practices in relation to effectiveness of schools. The tools are as follows: statistical techniques (Mean and Standard Deviation) inferential statistics (correlation and regression analysis) were used by using SPSS (17th version). By synthesizing the data, these methods have facilitated the derivation of conclusions and formulation of generalization. 1. Proforma for Teachers (Appendix - II) 2. Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ) by Rai, S & Sinha, A.K. (2000) 3. Organizational Culture-The Value Grid by Sinha, J. B. P. (1990) 4. Organizational Effectiveness Scale (OES) by Taylor, J. C. & Bower, D. (1972) Scoring and statistical analysis After the administration of questionnaires and final data collection, scoring of items were done as per the instructions of all the questionnaires. Once the scores were available, they were analyzed using quantitative measures. Different 3. Results & Discussion 1. Exploration of antecedent and outcome variables in different management type schools Transformational Leadership Competencies (TLC) It was assumed that the effectiveness of school is shaped by the transformational leadership competencies (TLC) within certain cultural characteristics perceived by the teachers of the school. Based on their perception, the findings of this study demonstrated that TLC was being practiced differently in public and private schools. Table 1. Mean (M) & Standard Deviation (SD) of different Dimensions of TLC by different Management Type Schools Dimensions of TLC SGS CGS SAS UAS Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD D1 Formal Objective 10.71 2.67 13.03 1.83 10.27 2.84 11.63 1.81 D2 Protective and Supportive 8.84 3.47 13.30 1.88 9.93 3.00 13.30 1.84 D3 Capable and Participative 17.03 5.09 23.37 2.34 17.63 5.65 22.53 1.93 D4 Effective Boundary Manager 13.48 4.05 18.00 1.84 12.97 4.48 16.93 2.00 D5 Work Appreciation,Cooperation & Trust 13.58 4.20 18.13 1.94 13.60 4.32 17.67 1.79 D6 Empowering Attitude 9.52 3.31 13.37 1.47 10.00 2.52 12.43 1.81 D7 Learning Oriented 13.65 3.80 18.40 1.73 13.83 3.88 16.73 2.49 D8 Composed, Risk Taking & Efficient 10.00 3.11 14.03 1.50 9.87 2.69 13.00 2.05 Note:CGS - Central Government School; SGS - State Government School; SAS - State Aided School; UAS - Unaided School International Journal of Applied Psychology 2021, 11(1): 24-41 29 Results revealed that the scores on the dimensions of TLC being capable and participative which is constantly scored (Table 1), shows that teachers have perceived their principal highest in all types of schools. as transformational leader exhibiting the competence of 25.00 D1_FORMAL OBJECTIVE 20.00 D2_PROTECTIVE & SUPPORTIVE 15.00 10.00 D3_CAPABLE & PARTICIPATIVE 5.00 D4_EFFECTIVE BOUNDARY MANAGER 0.00 D5_WORK SGS CGS SAS UAS APPREACIATION, COOPERATION & TRUST Figure 3. Mean Scores of Different Components of TLC in Different Management Type Schools This clearly shows that teachers have perceived their principals as one who is knowledgeable and skilled in their academics as well as administrative roles, receptive to new ideas, believes in the overall growth and development of teachers, other staff members and students. Teachers also perceived their principals as competent to encourage them to practice innovative and creative ways of teaching and learning. Perhaps, such perceptions may have facilitative effect on building trust and conducive climate for positive perceptions. The overall results (fig. 3) showed that central and private schools provide better possibilities of expression and practice of leadership competencies, as compare to state government and state aided schools. Organizational Culture – As Work Culture Values (WCV) Studies in the area of organizational culture indicated that organizational as well as individual values play an important role in determining how well an individual fits into the organizational context (Rousseau, 1990). To understand the cultural aspect and its related processes, many researchers have conceptualized and measured values at the individual level (Rokeach, 1973; Sinha, 1990). Values are an integral part of behavior and may be defined as a person's principles or standards of behavior. In the present research, these cultural aspects were measured in terms of four subordinate work related values (self-realization, status enhancement, sulphitic values and socio economic support) of teachers (Sinha, 1990). Results (Table 2) indicate that among the four dimensions, two of them, the self-realization and socio economic support values are being practiced more as against sulphitic and status enhancement values by the teachers in all the management type schools. The mean score on self-realization values seem to be more in central and private schools as compared to state government and state aided schools. In terms of socio-economic support, there is a marginal difference among the mean scores of central, state aided and private schools, whereas it is found to be least exhibited in state government schools. Table 2. Mean (M) & Standard Deviation (SD) of Work Culture Values (WCV) and its Dimensions by different Management Type Schools Dimensions of WCV D1_Self Realization D2_Status Enhancement D3_Sulphitic Values D4_Socio Economic Support SGS Mean SD 24.26 4.49 12.19 3.20 11.94 2.64 17.58 4.06 CGS Mean SD 31.10 3.73 16.10 2.73 14.77 1.98 20.40 3.77 SAS Mean SD 25.60 5.00 13.97 2.31 12.70 2.48 21.00 4.60 UAS Mean SD 28.80 2.96 15.37 1.71 12.87 2.46 20.73 2.33 Note: CGS - Central Government School; SGS - State Government School; SAS - State Aided School; UAS - Unaided School The pattern (fig. 4) of self-realization values was high in central and private schools as compare to state schools. As it is evident from above findings, that in central and private schools, principals exhibit those transformational leadership competencies and behavior, which helps in creating positive and healthy work environment. It seems that teachers get an opportunity to utilize their skills and talents, psychological space for learning and exploring new pedagogical ways of dissemination. 30 Anamika Rai and Anand Prakash: Leadership Competencies and Work Place Values: Keys to School Effectiveness in Public and Private Schools 35.00 30.00 D1_SELF REALIZATION 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 D2_STATUS ENHANCEMENT D3_SULPHITIC VALUES 5.00 0.00 D4_SOCIO ECONOMIC SUPPORT SGS CGS SAS UAS Figure 4. Mean Scores of different Dimensions of WCV in different Management Type Schools These competencies and behavior of school principals may inspire and motivate teachers to put extra efforts, which in turn help them to strengthen their believe and practice of values related to self-realization. This may be giving them an opportunity to get recognized as an individual and thereby strengthening their sense of identity as educationist/teacher. In an Indian organization, a study conducted by Singh (2009) revealed reward as one of the HR practices found strongly related with all the variables of these work cultural values in both public and private organizations. In comparison to state schools, central and private schools praise good activities, creative and innovative ways of learning. As a result, teachers of these schools may have viewed it as a motivating factor to reap these intrinsic rewards and act more in accordance with these dominant values. Further, Singh (2009) stated that people endorsed by the values of self-realization are better managed, so that they can serve the institution for longer period. Following this, results revealed that socio-economic support values have also scored high, which helps in building strong relations and it might be helpful for teachers in selection, recruitment, promotion and career management (Singh, 2009). The quality of relationships among new teachers and school insiders overcome the negative effects of unmet expectations (Major et al. 1995). Interaction with new teachers with positive frame of mind may be good for insiders’ attitude and morale. School Effectiveness (SE) Hill and Rowe (1996) suggested that teachers, not schools, ‘make the difference’ in student learning. In this background, this study tried to understand perceived school effectiveness in terms of teachers’ group functioning, goal integration and satisfaction. It is also reasonable to expect that a phenomenon as pervasive as work culture values of teachers will directly affect their perceived level of organizational performance. Results revealed (Table 3, fig. 5) that the mean scores on these dimensions show that group functioning and satisfaction are high, whereas goal integration is low in all the management type schools. It also follows the same pattern as above and exhibits high mean scores on group functioning and satisfaction in central and private schools respectively. Table 3. Mean (M) & Standard Deviation (SD) of School Effectiveness (SE) and its Dimensions by different Management Type Schools Dimensions of OC D1_Group Functioning D2_Satisfaction D3_Goal Integration SGS Mean SD 20.97 5.34 20.77 5.11 6.29 1.94 CGS Mean SD 27.50 2.76 27.23 2.71 8.43 1.22 SAS Mean SD 23.53 4.72 22.57 5.30 7.53 1.38 UAS Mean SD 26.27 2.10 25.33 2.47 8.63 0.81 Note: CGS - Central Government School; SGS - State Government School; SAS - State Aided School; UAS - Unaided School High scores on group functioning depicts that teachers perform better in groups. Every group member gets opportunity to take part in the decision-making process and problem solving. Further, they trust each other, show confidence, and execute plans with proper coordination. They also share important information and responsibilities in the times of unusual work demands to achieve the school objectives successfully. However, one of the probable explanations could be the principals’ initiative to build a team of old and new teachers in such a way that they learn new things and share each other’s responsibilities. International Journal of Applied Psychology 2021, 11(1): 24-41 31 30.00 25.00 20.00 D1_GROUP FUNCTIONING 15.00 10.00 D2_SATISFACTION 5.00 0.00 D3_GOAL INTEGRATION SGS CGS SAS UAS Figure 5. Mean Scores of different Dimensions of SE in different Management Type Schools 2. Relationship among the Different Dimensions of Transformational Leadership Competencies, Organizational Work Culture Values and School Effectiveness in Different Management Type of Schools, Separately Central Government Schools The correlation matrix of these three variables in central government schools (Table 4) show that all the eight dimensions of transformational leadership competencies and three dimensions of school effectiveness i.e. group functioning, satisfaction and goal integration were found to be significantly and positively correlated with self-realization (the very first dimension of WCV). Along with it, goal integration (the last dimension of SE) also revealed significant and positive relationship on all the dimensions of work culture values and transformational leadership competencies (few at .05 and few at .01 level of significance) except the eighth dimension of TLC i.e. – composed risk taking and efficient. Along with it, status enhancement (WCV) and satisfaction dimension (SE) found significantly and positively correlated with the dimensions of TLC (except effective boundary manager and composed risk taking and efficient behavior; and empowering attitude in case of satisfaction). Rests of the dimensions were not found to be significantly correlated with each other. State Government Schools If we look at the scenario in state government schools, the correlation matrix (Table 5) shows a significant and positive relationship among all the dimensions of transformational leadership competencies, work culture values and school effectiveness (few at .05 and few at .01 level of significance). Except the dimensions of group functioning and goal integration of SE were not found to be significantly correlated with learning oriented, self-realization and socio-economic support. State Aided Schools Similarly, in state aided schools as well the correlation matrix (Table 6) showed that all the dimensions of SE were found to be significantly and positively correlated with all the dimensions of transformational leadership competencies and work culture values (few at .05 and few at .01 level of significance). Along with it, the first two dimensions of WCV (i.e. self-realization and status enhancement) were also found significantly and positively correlated with all the dimensions of TLC. Private/Unaided Schools In terms of private schools, the correlation matrix (Table 7) depicted a slightly diverse kind of picture. Like, out of four dimensions of WCV, self-realization showed significant and positive correlation with only two dimensions of TLC (i.e. formal objective, capable and participative). Whereas, sulphitic values show significant and positive correlation with four dimensions of TLC, two at .01 level of significance (i.e. formal and objective, and composed, risk taking and efficient behaviors) and two at .05 level of significance (i.e. capable and participative and effective boundary manager). The rest two dimensions of WCV (i.e. status enhancement and socio economic support) revealed significant and negative correlation with two dimensions of TLC like, learning oriented and effective boundary manager respectively at .05 level of significance. Apart from this, status enhancement (dimension of WCV) was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with two dimensions of SE (i.e. group functioning and satisfaction) at .01 and .05 level of significance respectively. With respect to the dimensions of SE, group functioning and satisfaction turned out to be positive and showed significant relationship with four of the dimensions of TLC (protective and supportive, work appreciation, cooperation and trust, learning oriented and composed, risk taking and efficient behavior) at different levels of significance. Satisfaction is also significantly correlated with one more dimension of TLC i.e. capable and participative. However, the last dimension of SE (i.e. goal integration) showed significant and positive relationship with four dimensions of TLC (i.e. formal objective, capable and participative, effective boundary manager and empowering attitude) and two dimensions of WCV (self-realization and status enhancement) at different levels of significance. Rest of the dimensions were not found to be significantly correlated with each other. 32 Anamika Rai and Anand Prakash: Leadership Competencies and Work Place Values: Keys to School Effectiveness in Public and Private Schools Table 4. Inter-Correlation among Transformational Leadership, Work Culture Values & School Effectiveness in Central Government Schools Correlations in CGS D1_Formal Objective D2_Protective and Supportive D3_Capable and Participative D4_Effective Boundary Manager Transformational Leadership D5_Work Appreciation, Competency Cooperation & Trust D6_Empowering Attitude D7_Learning Oriented D8_Composed, Risk Taking & Efficient D1_Self Realization Work Culture D2_Status Enhancement Values D3_Sulphitic Values D4_Socio Economic Support School Effectiveness D1_Group Functioning D2_Satisfaction D3_Goal Integration TLC WCV SE D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D1 D2 D3 D4 D1 D2 D3 1 .67** 1 .50** .75** 1 .35 .53** .52** 1 .48** .75** .76** .57** 1 .48** .73** .74** .65** .80** 1 .52** .70** .76** .54** .73** .78** 1 .30 .39* .31 .14 .40* .50** .51** 1 .67** .45* .55** .44* .64** .60** .60** .36* 1 .65** .56** .43* .36 .47** .52** .40* .20 .56** 1 .27 .02 .14 .10 .13 .14 -.09 .04 .23 .55** 1 .43 .12 .26 .02 .22 .29 .21 .18 .40* .65** .74** 1 .44 .18 .34 .22 .35 .19 .25 .05 .64** .26 .18 .18 1 .53** .45* .62** .28 .56** .36 .43* .13 .65** .33 .12 .28 .68** 1 .55** .59** .61** .52** .67** .67** .53** .27 .66** .76** .44* .48** .35 .48** 1 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table 5. Inter-Correlation among Transformational Leadership, Work Culture Values & School Effectiveness in State Government Schools International Journal of Applied Psychology 2021, 11(1): 24-41 33 Table 6. Inter-Correlation among Transformational Leadership, Work Culture Values & School Effectiveness in State Aided Schools Correlations in SAS TLC WCV SE D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D1 D2 D3 D4 D1 D2 D3 D1_Formal Objective 1 D2_Protective And Supportive .73** 1 D3_Capable and Participative .56** .72** 1 D4_Effective Boundary Manager .60** .70** .95** 1 Transformational Leadership D5_Work Appreciation, Competency Cooperation & Trust .51** .67** .93** .95** 1 D6_Empowering Attitude .60** .65** .87** .89** .90** 1 D7_Learning Oriented .74** .79** .86** .87** .87** .90** 1 D8_Composed, Risk Taking & Efficient .50** .73** .79** .72** .74** .57** .73** 1 D1_Self Realization Work Culture D2_Status Enhancement Values D3_Sulphitic Values D4_Socio Economic Support .68** .52** .50** .47** .52** .47** .62** .71** 1 .72** .60** .36* .42* .46* .49** .68** .58** .77** 1 .36* .32 .26 .17 .31 .21 .38* .57** .73** .65** 1 .56** .56** .27 .22 .28 .18 .44* .67** .83** .71** .85** 1 School Effectiveness D1_Group Functioning D2_Satisfaction D3_Goal Integration .46* .52** .71** .69** .75** .55** .58** .72** .65** .39* .42* .46* 1 .73** .61** .56** .52** .55** .49** .65** .69** .87** .67** .73** .82** .77** 1 .51** .37* .48** .45* .52** .42* .54** .54** .74** .55** .63** .61** .71** .86** 1 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table 7. Inter-Correlation among Transformational Leadership, Work Culture Values & School Effectiveness in Unaided Schools
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