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Effectiveness of procedures to determine body composition and neurophysiological characteristics of athletes, adolescents and trainees

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https://www.eduzhai.net American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2021, 11(10): 665-668 DOI: 10.5923/j.ajmms.20211110.01 The Effectiveness of the Program for Determining the Composition of the Body and Neurophysiological Characteristics of Athletes Juniors and Cadets Rakhmatova Markhabo Rasulovna Bukhara State Medical Institute Named after "Abu Ali Ibn Sino", Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Uzbekistan Abstract Despite the numerous existing data, the problem of selecting the most gifted people as an independent direction is in a period of continuous search, improvement and further development. Scientifically substantiated methods of selecting "sports" children for sports schools, as well as predicting their future results are becoming significant stages and an integral part of the modern system of training athletes from beginners to international masters of sports. The selection system is a complex social mechanism that not only works for sports, but is also closely related to other spheres of activity. Therefore, it is important to define and reveal the basic concepts of this problem. Implementation of a modern computer program for the study and assessment of indicators of the component composition of the body, types of the nervous system of junior and cadet athletes. Based on the data obtained on the point assessment, we analyzed 75 athletes, juniors and cadets. All these athletes underwent a questionnaire test program to determine body composition and neurophysiological characteristics of junior and cadet athletes. As follows from the data obtained, athletes cadets and juniors who passed the test questionnaire according to the program prepared by us to determine the composition of the body and neurophysiological characteristics, the following result was obtained: 1 group of athletes who received from 0 to 7 points there were 18, 2 group of athletes who received from 8 to 14 amounted to 47 athletes, the 3rd group of athletes who received from 15 to 21 made up 10 junior and cadet athletes. The program can be used in sports schools for sports selection and identification of technical solutions, which in turn will help improve the level of sports achievements. Keywords Sports selection, Sports genetics, Computer programs for studying and evaluating indicators of body composition, Junior athletes and cadets 1. Introduction The victory of athletes at high-level competitions is the most important factor in the country's international status. In this regard, the question of the importance of the health of athletes for achieving high sports results has acquired particular importance. The current level of results in sports is so high that in order to achieve them, athletes need to possess a whole complex of various data: the proper degree of development of motor qualities, technical, tactical, game, functional, psychological, integral readiness, which must be at a very high level. Such a combination of properties, even with the most suitable structure of the training process in diverse cycles at all stages of many years of training, in accordance with all the convictions of government and control, is observed very rarely. Therefore, one of the main issues in the system of training athletes of the highest qualification is the question of Received: Sep. 8, 2021; Accepted: Sep. 25, 2021; Published: Oct. 15, 2021 Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net sports selection, the development of the theory of which determines the level of sports achievements and sports science in general [1,17,19,24]. Sports genetics is still at the beginning of the path, but at the same time it opens up many prospects for the development of medical and biological support for sports. The results of scientific research have proven that the basis of the optimal health indicators of athletes is the state of dynamic balance between the functional reserves of the body and the factors affecting it [4,5,18,20,26]. At the same time, the magnitude of the influence of factors that are inherent in the modern system of training athletes on the body of those involved increases in proportion to the stages of their professional development, which requires not just optimal health indicators, but the presence of an appropriate level of reserves of functions of its components. The value of the latter is the basis of the athlete's reliability - an indicator that is characterized by high performance of actions and its stability in extreme conditions of activity [2,10,15,16,23]. The use of the genetic characteristics of the organism will lead humanity to new records, because now not only persistence, regular training, willpower and motivation of an 666 Rakhmatova Markhabo Rasulovna: The Effectiveness of the Program for Determining the Composition of the Body and Neurophysiological Characteristics of Athletes Juniors and Cadets athlete are important, but also his “Olympic” heredity [3,6,7,12,21]. Genetic approach to the problem of sports orientation, selection of athletes will undoubtedly help to avoid “marriage” in coaching, save from performing ineffective work and ensure high rates of training for athletes. With the help of genetic tests, it is possible to determine not only a predisposition to a particular sport, but also to identify possible health problems that can become a serious obstacle to sports victories. The solution of the above-mentioned problems is an urgent and priority problem of modern sports medicine [8,9,11,22,25]. When selecting athletes for national teams or preparing them for participation in important competitions, the task of determining the state of readiness of an athlete during the period of direct preparation for the competition becomes very urgent. In this regard, in various sports, a variety of tests are used, with the help of which coaches assess the operational level of performance of candidates for participation in specific competitions. Despite the fact that today mobile applications of this type are generally available, there has been no research work on their implementation and evaluation of their effectiveness in various somatic diseases. Sports selection acquires its justified meaning when the problems of competitive recruitment of professionally oriented sports institutions and similar groups of athletes, trained to replenish the ranks of those who devote themselves to sports of the highest achievements, are solved. The selection of athletes is also justified when national teams are formed on a competitive sports basis and admission to high-ranking competitions is regulated in direct proportion to the level of individual sports achievements. Such selection is naturally conditioned by the competitive nature of sports and, in principle, does not “reject” anyone and does not deprive sports prospects, on the contrary, it can stimulate sports daring [13,14,27]. Sports selection continues constantly in the process of sports activities. So, if a beginner is enrolled in a sports group, then work with him continues until, for some reason, a decision is made to stop training. The period of time during which sports selection is carried out can have a different value - from a few seconds to several years. So, for example, the initial selection of young athletes is carried out with a view to the subsequent long-term sports activity. Correct implementation of sports selection ensures the most effective creation and implementation of competitive potential. It is also necessary to remember about the humane aspect of selection, which allows a person to find the type of activity in which his abilities are revealed to the greatest extent. Bukhara. 3. Materials and Methods To optimize the training regime and the selection of promising cadet and junior athletes, which will allow athletes to achieve high results, based on the data obtained on the point assessment, we analyzed 75 junior and cadet athletes. All these athletes passed the program in the form of a questionnaire test to determine body composition and neurophysiological characteristics of junior and cadet athletes. A program for determining body composition and neurophysiological characteristics of junior and cadet athletes № Criteria 1 Assessment of indicators of the composition of the body Assessment of the nervous 2 system of junior and cadet athletes Estimation of the frequency 3 of occurrence of the allelic-genotypic variant of the ADRB2 gene Evaluation of the frequency 4 of occurrence of the allelic-genotypic variant of the FABP2 gene Assessment of the relationship between 5 indicators of body composition, types of the nervous system of junior and cadet athletes Assessment of the relationship between indicators of body 6 composition, types of the nervous system and allelic-genotypic variants of ADRB2, FABP2 genes in junior and cadet athletes 7 Does the athlete have "Olympic" inheritance? 8 Does the athlete motivation Quantitative and qualitative characteristics Not carried out Partially carried out Completely carried out Not rated Partially rated Fully rated Not carried out Partially carried out Completely carried out Not carried out Partially carried out Completely carried out Not carried out Partially carried out Completely carried out Not carried out Partially carried out Completely carried out Does not have Have got Does not have Has partially Have got Points 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 2 4 0 3 5 1 2 0 1 2 2. Purpose To study the practical significance of the program we have created for determining the composition of the body and the neurophysiological characteristics of junior and cadet athletes and implement it in sports schools in the city of 0 to 7 points. The level of expected athletic performance is very low. It requires a full study, assessment and comparison of indicators of the component composition of the body, types of the nervous system and the ADRB2, FABP2 gene in cadets and juniors involved in various sports, to study the relationship between the component American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2021, 11(10): 665-668 667 composition of the body and allele-genotypic variants of the ADRB2, FABP2 gene in cadets and juniors engaged in various sports. 8-14 points. The level of expected sporting achievements is average. It requires the study of the ADRB2, FABP2 gene in cadets and juniors engaged in various sports, to study the relationship between the body composition and allele-genotypic variants of the ADRB2, FABP2 gene in cadets and juniors involved in various sports. 15-21 points. The level of expected athletic performance is very high, where the development of athletic skills is recommended. 4. Results and Its Discussion As follows from the data obtained, athletes cadets and juniors who passed the test questionnaire according to the program prepared by us to determine the composition of the body and neurophysiological characteristics, which were divided into 3 main groups, the following results were obtained: 1 group of athletes who received from 0 to 7 points were 18. 2 group of athletes who received from 8 to 14 made up 47 athletes. 3 group of athletes who received from 15 to 21 made up 10 athletes juniors and cadets. Based on these results, the effectiveness of the proposed control method using genetic analyzes can determine not only a predisposition to a particular sport, but also identify possible health problems that can become a serious obstacle on the way to sports victories. The social effectiveness of the proposed program lies in the fact that the results are fundamental for the development of practical recommendations and proposals for optimizing the training regime and the selection of promising cadet athletes, which will allow athletes to achieve high results. The use of the genetic characteristics of the organism will lead humanity to new records, because now not only persistence, regular training, willpower and motivation of an athlete are important, but also his "Olympic" heredity. Genetic approach to the problem of sports orientation, selection of athletes will undoubtedly help to avoid “marriage” in coaching, save from performing ineffective work and ensure high rates of training for athletes. 5. Conclusions Thus, the program can be used in sports schools for sports selection and identification of a technical solution, which in turn will help to improve the level of sports achievements. Based on the shown medical, social and economic efficiency, as well as its accessibility and simplicity, the proposed method can be recommended for implementation in wide sports practice. REFERENCES [1] Bêseda V. V. Osoblivostí rukhovogo statusu dítey doshkíl'nogo víku kategoríí̈ «praktichno zdoroví» / V. V. Bêseda // Nauka íosvíta. – 2014. – № 4/SKHKHÍ. – S. 22–27. [2] Gavrilova Ye. A. Sovremennyye predstavleniya o sindrome peretrenirovannosti / Ye. A. Gavrilova // Sportivnaya meditsina: nauka i praktika. – 2013. – № 1 (10). – S. 77–78. [3] Gladkov V. N. 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