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Clinical results of dental education program for primary school children

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https://www.eduzhai.net American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2021, 11(10): 714-717 DOI: 10.5923/j.ajmms.20211110.10 Clinical Outcomes of a Dental Education Program for Primary School Children Mukhiddin Nizomiddin Ogli Saydaliev Postgraduate Student of the Department of “Pediatric Therapeutic Dentistry”, Tashkent State Dental Institute, Uzbekistan Abstract To study the effectiveness of a dental educational program for the prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease in children of primary grades. Material and methods: The object of the study was 175 junior schoolchildren of secondary schools №240, №259 and №302 in the city of Tashkent. The subject of the study was a dental education program, “A Dazzling Smile for Life”. Results: As a result of the educational dental program, the increase in caries was not observed in primary schoolchildren, after a year the intensity of dental caries according to the CSR index decreased from 4.13 + 0.23 to 3.09 + 0.20 p <0.05, the PMA index improved and was 15.7 + 0.77 p <0.05. Keywords School children, Hygienic index, Dental caries, Oral cavity, Dental diseases, Prevention programs, Dental status, Caries intensity 1. Introduction In many countries, significant progress has been made in reducing the prevalence and intensity of dental caries in children [1]. The Global Databank of the Epidemiology of Caries documents large differences in the intensity of dental caries (Caries Seal Removal - CSR) of the key age group of 12 years [2,4], which are difficult to explain in terms of targeted control of this disease through the implementation of community prevention programs. For example, in China, a low level of caries intensity in children has been maintained for many years [11]. While in most countries of Western Europe during this period there was both a peak of carious disease (in a number of countries of the SCR teeth of 12-year-old children reached the level of 8-10 units), and a fantastic decrease in the prevalence and intensity of caries to the level of rare cases among children school age [14]. 2. The Main Findings and Results Systematic monitoring of the dental health of the population is one of the most important components of the dental care system [12]. In a number of EU countries, there are automated programs for the annual registration of the main criteria for the dental status of children and the preventive measures taken [8,6,3]. In the countries of Eastern Europe, state systems for monitoring the dental health of the population according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization are in their infancy, but for more than 50 years information on the prevalence of dental diseases has been available in published scientific studies. Unfortunately, the results of this huge and important work of research institutes and dental departments of medical universities are practically not taken into account in the reporting systems of health authorities. It is quite difficult to eliminate this problem, since the ideal system for monitoring dental health on the example of Denmark [13] costs many times more than the entire system of dental care for children in Belarus or other CIS countries. A rational way out of this situation can be the use of non-costly information systems, for example, EGOHID-2005 (European Global System of Dental Health Indicators), developed by the European Commission on Health [9]. Our experience of using this system in several countries has been positive [5,7,10]. An important aspect of these works was the identification of the determinants of dental caries and periodontal diseases, which makes it possible to substantiate evidence-based recommendations for optimizing the prevention and quality of treatment of major dental diseases. Thus, the relevance of this study is determined by the high prevalence of dental diseases and the possibility of obtaining a medical and social effect when carrying out scientifically based measures to form a high level of motivation in primary school children to maintain oral health. * Corresponding author: muhiddin_stars@mail.ru (Mukhiddin Nizomiddin Ogli Saydaliev) Received: Sep. 25, 2021; Accepted: Oct. 25, 2021; Published: Oct. 30, 2021 Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net 3. Purpose of the Study To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2021, 11(10): 714-717 715 prevention program "Dazzling smile for life" in order to program decreased from 97.6 to 91.6%, the increase in the preserve and strengthen the health of children of primary prevalence of caries was not observed. Under the influence school age, the city of Tashkent. of the preventive program during the year, the prevalence of dental caries reached 88.4%, an increase in the prevalence of 4. Research Objectives dental caries in 12 months, amounted to 0%. By the end of the year, the prevalence of decay dental caries in children of the FD who did not participate in the To study the dental status of primary school children at prophylactic program was higher (95.6%) than in children baseline and in dynamics after 6 months and one year after participating in the program”. the program. We also studied the change in the intensity of dental caries Evaluate the effectiveness of the “Dazzling Smile for Life” in children of the main group after 12 months. Applications program for children of primary school age. of the program. As can be seen from table 1, the intensity of dental caries 6 months after the start of the lessons according 5. Materials and Methods to the CSR+cs indices was 2.51 ± 0.14. A year later, there was a decrease in the intensity of caries according to the The object of the research was the junior schoolchildren of educational institutions (175 people). The subject of the research was a dental educational program conducted in 2-3 grades of secondary schools №240, №259 and №302 in the city of Tashkent. Children participating in the educational program were included in the main group (84 people). Children, for whom the educational program was not carried out, made up a comparison group (91 people). In this article, we will focus on the change in clinical indicators in children obtained as a result of the CSR+cs indices to 2.26 ± 0.14 (P <0.001). There was no increase in intensity in the prophylactic group during the year of prophylaxis. By the end of the year, a comparison of indicators of the intensity of dental caries in children of primary school age showed that the intensity of dental caries in children of the control group was 3.09 + 0.20, which is significantly higher (P <0.05) than in children of the main group. The assessment of the level of individual oral hygiene was carried out in children using the Fedorov-Volodkina hygiene index. This study is necessary for: implementation of this program. - qualitative assessment of dental plaque as an The participants in the study were persons whose legal etiopathogenetic factor in the onset and development of representatives signed a voluntary informed consent. Dental major dental diseases; examination of children was carried out using a set of dental - development of appropriate practical recommendations instruments under artificial lighting. for correcting the methods of individual oral hygiene as The clinical studies carried out as a result of the work were: well as drawing up, on their basis, specific individual examination, determination of the prevalence of caries, plans for a complex of caries prophylactic measures determination of the intensity of caries by the CSR + cs index, with subsequent correction of plans in the course of the hygienic state of the oral cavity was determined by the treatment; index of oral hygiene (Fedorova Volodkina) and the state of - teaching the basics of personal oral hygiene; - assessing the periodontal soft tissues was studied by the PMA index the significance of the hygienic procedure itself for the (Parma). health of the patient's oral cavity; For statistical data analysis, the Statistica software - determining the optimal ways to eliminate the package, developed by StatSoft, was used, which consequences of an unsatisfactory hygienic state of the implements the functions of data analysis, data management, oral cavity. data visualization using statistical methods, as well as economic, statistical and graphical tools of the Microsoft Excel program, which is part of Microsoft's Microsoft Office. To estimate the mathematical expectation of the mean values of all parameters, interval estimation was performed. The values of continuous quantities are presented in the form M ± m, where M is the estimate of the mathematical expectation for the sample (sample mean), m is the parameter of the confidence interval (standard error of the mean). The table shows the indicators of the Fedorov-Volodkina hygiene index in children of the main and control groups. As can be seen from the table, in the prophylactic group before treatment with AT it was 1.85 + 0.10, in the control group - 1.72 + 0.10. The hygienic state of the oral cavity was unsatisfactory in both groups. After 6 months, the IG of the oral cavity in children of the main group decreased to 1.42 ± 0.07, in the control group - to 1.49 + 0.09. After 12 months, this indicator continued to decrease to 1.27 ± 0.05 in the subjects of the main group and to 1.50 + 0.09 in the control group reached a satisfactory indicator (P >0.05). 6. Results and Discussion To assess the state of the soft tissues of the periodontium, indicators characterizing the state of gingival inflammation As can be seen from the table, - the prevalence of dental were studied. caries after 6 months. after the application of the educational As can be seen from the table, in children of the 716 Mukhiddin Nizomiddin Ogli Saydaliev: Clinical Outcomes of a Dental Education Program for Primary School Children prophylactic group, the PMA index was 29.6 ± 1.46%, in the comparison group - 34.3 ± 1.38%, i.e. mild gingivitis was observed. Subsequently, a discrepancy was recorded in the dynamics of the state of the periodontal tissues. So, after 6 months in children of the prophylactic group, the PMA index was 15.8 ± 0.89%, in the comparison group - 16.8 ± 0.91%. After 12 months, in children of the main group, the PMA index decreased to 15.7 ± 0.77%, in the control group to 21.2 ± 0.97% (P <0.001). Thus, within 12 months in children of the main group, it was possible to significantly reduce the PMA index from 29.6 ± 1.46% to 15.7 ± 0.77% (P <0.001). Table 1. Results of the dental education program for primary school children (M + m) CSR+cs AT PMA Prevalence of dental caries Main n=84 Control n=91 Main Control Main Control Main Control Boy n=46 Girl n=38 Average. Boy n=47 Girl n=44 Average. Boy Girl Average. Boy Girl Average. Boy Girl Average. Boy Girl Average. Boy Girl Average. Boy Girl Average. Till 4,32+0,32 4,76+0,36 4,52+0,24 4,06+0,33 4,2+0,33 4,13+0,23 1,91+0,13 1,78+0,18 1,85+0,10 1,97+0,15 1,45+0,22 1,72+0,10 32,7+1,97 25,9+2,05 29,6+1,46 36,0+2,08 32,5+1,79 34,3+1,38 98% 97% 97,6% 91.5% 98% 94,5 6 months. 2,5+0,21* 2,52+0,21* 2,51+0,14* 3,19+0,28^ 2,86+0,27* 3,03+0,19*^ 1,52+0,10 1,30+0,11 1,42+0,07* 1,57+0,13* 1,40+0,11 1,49+0,09^ 16,4+1,26* 15,1+1,25* 15,8+0,89* 15,9+1,22* 17,7+1,35* 16,8+0,91* 93.5% 89.5% 91,6 85% 91% 88 12 months. 2,30+0,22* 2,21+0,18* 2,26+0,14* 2,97+0,26* 3,22+0,22*^ 3,09+0,20*^ 1,37+0,08* 1,15+0,07* 1,27+0,05* 1,67+0,14 1,32+0,10* 1,50+0,09^ 16,6+1,15* 14,6+0,97* 15,7+0,77* 23,3+1,27*^ 18,9+1,43* 21,2+0,97*^ 91% 92% 91,6 96% 95.5% 95,6 Note: * - p <0.05 when compared with the data before treatment; ^ - p <0.05 in comparison with the data of the control group; 7. Conclusions As a result of the educational dental program, primary schoolchildren did not have a newly identified carious process, in comparison with the comparison groups of the same territories; a decrease in the hygienic indicator (improved hygiene) was noted in all territories in the groups of children of participants in the school educational program, in contrast to the comparison groups; the indicator of the interval of visiting a dentist by children in the dynamics of the educational program also significantly decreased in the main groups of the above territories. The results obtained by us testify to the achievement of the set goal and the fulfillment of the designated tasks. REFERENCES [1] Petersen P.E. // Community Dental Health. – 2010. – Vol. 27. – pp. 194–199. [2] WHO Country Oral Health Profiles / EURO https://www.mah.se/CAPP. 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Ştiinţe medicale. – 2012. – N2 (34). – P.40–48. [11] Dianiskova S. (2014) The system of payment for orthodontic services in Slovakia // The XII International Congress on oral health and dental management in Central and East- European countries. – Constanta, Romania. – P.20–23, 43. [12] Madlena M. Epidemiology – the need for oral health care // The XII International Congress on oral health and dental management in Central and East-European countries. – Constanta, Romania, 22–25 May 2014. – P.27–30. [13] Katrova L., Ivanov I., et al. Students and teachers’ perception of occupational risk factors. The XII International Congress on oral health and dental management in Central and East-European countries. – Constanta, Romania, 2014. – P.8–10, 44. [14] Marino B., Domenico D., Igmazia C., et al. // Oral Health Dental Manag (Romania). – 2012. – Vol.11. – P.149–161. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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