Socioeconomic and sociological predictors of illegal abortion among adolescents in the western local government area of akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
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https://www.eduzhai.net Public Health Research 2013, 3(3): 33-36 DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20130303.01 Socio-Economical and Sociological Factors as Predictors of Illegal Abortion among Adolescent in Akoko West Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria Ade uga Isaac Tunde 1,*, Ondo State2 1Human Kinetics And Health Education Unit, Science and Technical Education Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko 2Department of Science and Technical Education, Faculty of Education, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko Abstract Th is study examines the socio-economic and sociological factors as predictors of illegal abort ion among adolescents in ten secondary schools namely Ajegunle high school, Agbogbo High school, Akoko Grammar school, Ikare Grammar School, Co mprehensive High School, Okede Grammar School, Mount Carmel Girls Grammar School and Victory College. The participants for this study consisted of 500 respondents selected from the population of adolescent in Akoko West local Govern ment sampled using survey research design. Simple random samp ling technique was used to select the ten secondary schools while the purposive sampling technique was used to select 500 adolescent students. A self developed questionnaire with re liability co-effic ient of 0.84 was used to collect the data using cronbach alpha. The descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages, were used to analy ze the demographic informat ion wh ile non-parametric statistics of ch i-square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 alpha leve l of significant. The result showed that poverty, drop out of school, level of education and inadequate of medical personnel, facilities and equip ment were predictors to illegal abortion among adolescent in Akoko West Local Govern ment of Ondo State. Based on the findings, it was reco mmended that Govern ment should eradicate poverty in our society by providing job opportunities for the masses, more hospitals, health centers’ should be built with modern med ical equip ment and medical personnel, and there should be public awareness about the dangers of illegal abortion. Keywords M iscarriage, Cultural, Psychological, Pregnancy, Infertility 1. Background of the Study The rate of pregnancy among ado lescents is on d aily increase and this is causing major health and social problems in the society. Pregnancy among adolescent is one of the major prevalent health concern for families as a unit, the society and the government both at local, state and federal level. Accord ing to mo re than one million ado lescents ranging between ages of 15 to 17 years became pregnant . Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey in 1992 revealed that mo re than a qu arter o f Nigerian ado lescents ages between 15and 19 years are pregnant or have had children, and that 43% of the pregnancy are unintended or unplanned for. The same agency revealed that adolescent are mo re likely to resort to induced and unsafe abortion which can result into morbidity and mortality Reference. stated that ado lescents are sexu ally act iv e b eyon d what parents , teachers and religious leaders think the prevailing situation * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Adeuga Isaac Tunde) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved is, this is due to the fact that they are at a stage of life characterized by intense sexual drive, peer pressure, a perverse social environment poor reproductive health knowledge, just to mention a few and one of the consequences of the aforementioned is teenage pregnancy. Reference. stated that more and more adolescent are becoming sexually active, at early ages, at a high frequency, with many partners and without the benefit of effective and regular contraception. He went further to say that the result of these encounters is unwanted and unplanned pregnancy. Young girls involved in this practice while still in school thereby depending on their parents and guardians for survival. At times they are not even sure of the father o f the expected child as most of such pregnancies are unwanted, unplanned and unintended the girls are force to terminate pregnancies by all means because they are not ready for motherhood as that would mean loosing out of many life opportunities such as education, jobs, marriage. They fear retribution and rebuke by the family and society as a whole, though a few of such girls do carry the pregnancy up to the stage of delivery. It is presumed that a good proportion of them do terminate their pregnacy to remedy the already awful situation. 34 Adeuga Isaac Tunde et al.: Socio-Economical and Sociological Factors as Predictors of Illegal Abortion amongAdolescent in Akoko West Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria Reference. stated that female adolescents become pregnant due to some socio-economic and sociological factors. This is also a problem, as abortion is not yet legalized by the Federal law makers of Nigeria .As such when abortion is done, it is often done in secrecy and usually quacks are consulted. This often lead to sudden death, female adolescents contacting HIV/AIDS, health problem such as psychological proble ms, reproductive tract infections, heavy bleeding-leading to severe-anemia, to xemias, vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) damaged uterus, infertility and sterility. According to. Abortion could be therapeutic in nature to save the mother’s life or done when congenital malfo rmation of the foetus is diagnosed. It can as well be criminally induced; and both can become co mplete or incomp lete abortion. Incomp lete abortion can lead or give rise to heavy bleeding, sepsis and other serious medical or gynecological complications. Reference. Bureau on abortion population stated that estimated 68,000 girls and wo men die each year fro m induced unsafe abortion and million suffer co mplications that require medical attention. More than one quarter of world population live in countries where abortion procedure is prohib ited and only allowed for therapeutic purpose, however regardless of legal status people still carry out abortion, and nearly half of them are performed by an unskilled pract itioners in an unsanitary en v iro n men ts . Reference. submitted that socio- economic status is a component of social environ ment, which has tremendous, impacts on a person’s health including that of the family. With enhanced socio-economic status, the individual would be able to afford products and services that will improve his health and quality of life. These groups of adolescents seek help fro m cheap medical health centres without being mindful of the existing skills; frequently they patronize quacks and unskilled health personnel with all its attendant consequences. Due to their low economic status; traditional med icine p ractioners, seek medicat ion and finally they involved in abortion. In the same vein stated that sociological factors which include society, peer group, religious, culture, parent, and family just to mention a few somet imes contribute to misfortune or delinquency in female adolescents. The misfortune include, stealing, truancy, having mult iple boy friends, attending night parties and eventually unwanted pregnancy which often result into abortion and untimely death. 1.1. Objecti ves Despite the awareness about HIV/AIDS and the danger associated with abortion in public and private secondary schools, female adolescents are not cautioned about having unwanted, pregnancy which usually results into abortion and sometimes death. The fact still remain that Nigeria is yet to legalize abortion as many countries did. Th is is one of the reasons why most female adolescents secretly patronize quack doctors and nurses thereby endangering their live through induced abortion. The objective of this paper, therefore is to identify the socio-economic and sociological factors that predict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West Local Govern ment Area of Ondo State in Nigeria. 1.2. Hypotheses The following are our formu lated and tested hypotheses for the study 1. Poverty will not significantly predict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West Local govern ment Area of Ondo State. 2. Level of Education will not significantly pred ict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West Local government area of Ondo State. 3. Fear of dropping out of school will not significantly predict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West local govern ment area of Ondo State 4. Inadequate medical facilities will not significantly predict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West Local Govern ment area of Ondo State. 2. Methodology 2.1. Research Design The descriptive research design was used for this study. 2.2. Population The population for the study comprised all female adolescents ’in secondary schools in Akoko West Local Govern ment Area in Ondo State. 2.3. Sample and Sampling Techni ques Simp le rando m samp ling techniques was used to select 10 secondary schools while purposive sampling technique was used for selection of female adolescents. 500 part icipants were selected, of which at least 50 female adolescents, students were taken fro m each secondary school under study 3. Research Instrument The instrument fo r the study was a self – developed close ended type questionnaire designed in accordance with likert scale techniques of summated rating with weight allotted to them to enable the responded respondents indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement with the statement supplied. The response was on four rating of Strongly Agree (SA) Agree (A) Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.84 using cronbach alphas. The descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages were used to analyze the demographic in formation while the inferential statistics of chi-square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 alpha levels. Public Health Research 2013, 3(3): 33-36 35 4. Data Analysis Table 1. frequency distribution of Age respondents AGE 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 Tot al NO % 49 11.4 211 49.1 136 31.6 34 7.9 430 100.00 Table 1 above shows that 49 students were between the ages of 14-15 wh ich represents 11.4%, 211 students were between the age range of 16-17 wh ich represents 49%, 136 students were between the ages of 18-19 which represents 31.6% and 34 students were between the age range of 20-21 which represents 7.9%. Testing of Hypothesis H01: poverty will not significantly pred ict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West Local Government Area of Ondo State. Table 2. Chi-square analysis of poverty as predictor of illegal abortion among adolescent in Akoko West Local Government Area of Ondo state IT EM 6 7 8 Tot al % SD 43 60 34 137 31.85 A 38 37 38 113 26.30 D 32 27 40 99 22.96 SD 30 19 32 81 18.87 TOTAL 143 143 144 430 % 33% 33.3% 33.4% 100 X2 = 48.6; df 2: p >0.05; critica l value = 5.99 Table 2 revealed that 137 (31.85%) strongly agree , 113 (26.30%) agreed , 99 (22.96%) d isagree and 81 (18.87%) strongly disagree that poverty is be a predictor of illegal abortion among adolescents of Akoko West local government area of Ondo state. When the data was subjected to Chi-square (X2) value of 48.65 was higher than the table value of 5.99 at 2 df and at 0, 05 alpha level, therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. The result showed that poverty is a predictor of illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West local government area of Ondo state. The findings support that of where it was reported that poverty and socio economic sometimes lead adolescents into prostitution which results into unwanted pregnancy and illegal abort ion. It is also correlated the findings of where it was pointed out that socio-economic challenges and poverty can contribute to unwanted pregnancy among adolescents. H02: Level of education will not significantly pred ict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West local government area in Ondo State. Table 3. Chi-square analysis of level of education as predictor of illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West local government area of Ondo St ate IT EM SD A D SD TOTAL % 9 38 64 22 20 144 33.4 10 40 60 24 19 143 33.3 11 42 38 32 31 143 33.3 Total 120 162 78 70 430 % 27.91 37.67 18.14 16.28 100 Table 3, reveals that 120 (27.91%) strongly agreed and 162 (37.67%) agreed, 78(18.14%) disagreed and 70 (16.28%) strongly disagreed. When the data was subjected to chi-square (X2) a value of 158.71 was obtained against the critical value of 5.99 at degree of fraction 2 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis which stated that level of education will not significantly predict illegal abortion among adolescents in Akoko West local government area in Ondo state was rejected. The findings of the hypothesis support that of who discovered that sociological factor which include level of education of adolescent is one of the factors causing unwanted pregnancy which usually results into illegal abortion. The illegal abortion is co mmon among secondary school girls than those who are at tertiary institution. Reference. stated that sociological factors which include (level of education, sex awareness and, taking part in physical act ivities can p revent unwanted pregnancy which could have resulted to illegal abortion. H03 fear of dropping out of school will not be significantly predictive of illegal abortion among adolescent in Akoko West local government area of Ondo state. Table 4. Chi-square analysis of dropping out of school as predictor of illegal abortion among adolescent in Akoko West local government area of Ondo state IT EM SD A D SD TOTAL % 12 97 71 32 16 316 50.2 13 57 62 61 34 215 49.8 Total 154 133 93 50 430 % 35.8 31.0 21.6 11.6 100 Table 4 showed that 154 (35.8%) strongly agreed and 133 (31.0%) agreed that dropping out of school constituted predictor to illegal abortion among adolescent Akoko West local govern ment area of Ondo state while 93 (21.6%) disagreed and 50 (11.6%) strongly disagreed respectively. On subjection of data to Chi-square statistics, 230.99 was obtained as against the table value 5.99 at alpha level significant with df2. Therefore the null hypothesis is hereby rejected. This agrees with the finding of who stated that one of the factors associated to adolescent pregnancy is fear of being rejected fro m association as well as school. H04; in adequate medical facilities will not significantly be a predictor of illegal abortion among adolescent in Akoko West local government area in Ondo state. Table 5. Chi-square analysis of inadequate medical personnel and facilities as predictor of illegal abortion among adolescents Akoko West local government area of Ondo state IT EM SD 14 41 15 50 16 42 Total 133 % 31% A D SD TOTAL % 52 34 17 144 33.4 35 27 21 143 33.3 42 34 35 143 33.3 129 95 73 430 30% 22% 17% 100 X2 = 71.08; df: p > 0.05; crit ical value = 5.99 Table 5, revealed that 133 (31%) strongly agreed and 129 (30%) agreed on the inadequate med ical personnel and 36 Adeuga Isaac Tunde et al.: Socio-Economical and Sociological Factors as Predictors of Illegal Abortion amongAdolescent in Akoko West Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria facilit ies as predictor of illegally abortion among adolescent in Akoko West local government area of Ondo state, 95 (22.0% disagrees and 73 (17.0% strongly disagreed on the inadequate medical personnel and facilities as predictor of illegally abortion among adolescents in Akoko West local government area of Ondo state. On the basis of the obtained Chi-square value of 71.08, wh ich is greater than the table value of 5.99 at 2df and 0.05 alpha level of significant the null hypothesis is hereby rejected. The result shows inadequate medical personnel and facilities would predict abortion among adolescent in Akoko West local government area in Ondo state. This disagrees with who stated that Nigerian pregnant wo men have access to ante-natal care which means that there are enough med ical personnel as well as facilities in the sector. 5. Conclusions and Recommendations Adolescents involved in illegal abortion because of the socio-economic such as poverty and ignorance, level of their education, peer group influence, fear of dropping out of school, lack of sex education as well as inadequacy of med ical personnel. Facilities and drugs were significant to predictor of illegal abortion among adolescent of Akoko West local government in Ondo state Based on this, we put forward the following reco mmen d atio n s ; 1. Govern ment should try to eradicate poverty in the society by making job availab le to masses. 2. Govern ment should legalized abortion as this will prevent adolescents fro m engaging in secrecy and patronizing quack doctors. 3. There must be provision for drop out school adolescent in the society. Such provision could be establishment of continue centers’ as well as trade centers’ for such drop out s tud en ts . 4. There must be enough med ical personnel as well as facilit ies such as equipments and drugs in existing hospitals. More hospitals should be built so that everybody would have access to medical care be it a pregnant or a non-pregnant p ers o n . REFERENCES  Fleming & O’Connor Adolescent Abortion; Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol: 91 (3) 1-2.(1993).  M oronkola O. A. Essay on Issue on the Health. Ibadan, Royal People (Nigeria) Ltd.(2003).  Lemo, V.M . & M acharia, J.K. A reviews of Abortion in Kenya The centre for the study of adolescent. (1992).  M oronkola O.A. & Okanlawon, E, A. Fundamental of Public and Community healt education. Ibadan, Royal People (Nigeria) Ltd. (2006).  WHO, (2006). Unsafe Abortion facts and figure Washington DC. Population reference Bureau. (2006).  Udoh, C.O Health and illness Behaviors. Ibadan Chris Rose Venture Nigeria Ltd.(2002).  Adeuga, T.I. Administrative and Sociological factors as predictors ofparticipation in sports among students in schools of science in Oyo state, Nigeria. An Unpublished doctoral thesis University of Ibadan Nigeria.(2010).  Odetola, J.O. Adolescent reproductive Health Issues and Challenges on Contemporary Nigeria in Nwazuoke, Bangbose Y,(2006).  Okonofua, F.E. Factors Associated with adolescent Pregnancy in rural Nigeria http//www.google.com Retrieved. 7th November, (2008 ).  Oji, E. January 21st, only 33% Nigerian pregnant Women have access to Ante-natal care. The Punch Pp. 1. (2009).
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