eduzhai > Helth Sciences > Medical >

Particulate matter emitted by crushers and its impact on workers' health, Central Province - Gaza, Palestine

  • sky
  • (0) Download
  • 20211101
  • Save
https://www.eduzhai.net Public Health Research 2015, 5(5): 135-138 DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20150505.02 Particulate Matter Emitted from Gravel Crushers and Their Health Impacts on Workers, Middle Governorate - Gaza, Palestine Yousef Aljeesh1, Ahmed AboShoga2,*, Mohammed R. Al-Agha3 1Associate Professor in Public Health, Islamic University of Gaza 2Infection control committee leader, Al- AmaL Hospital (Palestine Red Crescent Society) 3Professor of Environmental Resources Management, Islamic University of Gaza Abstract Case-control study was conducted during the period from April to August 2013 on all gravel crushers at Middle Gaza Governorates. 87 individuals participated, case (exposed) and control (non exposed) groups contain 40, 47 respectively. PM10 concentration level was measured in the six crushers, and all participants were subjected to questionnaire and vital signs measuring. Conducted to evaluate the level of PM10 air pollution in crushers plants, and their impacts on respiratory system health, vital signs for crushers workers. Results showed that an average of particulate matter contributions is 15153 μg/m3, which is about 100 times higher than PM10 existing standard of 150 μg/m3. As well as, it showed clear links between PM10 exposure and respiratory health and vital signs among exposed group. Cough, dyspnea and sputum buildup were more common among the exposed group 100%, 97.5%, and 82,5% respectively, the non exposed group 14.9%, 31,9%, and 28.6%, respectively. Vital signs disturbances (Increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increasing pulse rate, increasing respiratory rate and temperature) reported significantly among the exposed workers. We can conclude that PM10 concentration level in crushers plants were much higher than the existing standard. Occupational exposure to PM10 leads to higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and vital signs disturbance. Key Words: PM10. Respiratory symptoms. Vital signs. Crushers, Blood Pressure, Pulse, Temperature. Keywords PM10, Respiratory symptoms, Vital signs, Crushers, Blood Pressure, Pulse, Temperature 1. Background and Introduction Many studies have shown that acute exposure to PM10 is associated with decrements in pulmonary function. Studies have observed that long-term PM10 exposures are associated with deficits in lung function and increased symptoms of obstructive airway disease, such as chronic cough, bronchitis, and chest illness (Schwartz, 1989; Chestnut et al., 1991; Raizenne et al., 1996; and Ackermann et al. 1997; Thishan G., 2008; and Brown M., 2009). In 2007, the WHO released data on estimated deaths worldwide attributable to selected environmental risk factors including deaths per country per year as a result of outdoor air pollution. Worries that air pollution may have significant effects on health have recently been fuelled by publication of new evidence linking low levels of ambient air pollution with small public health effect. In order to suffer health effect, an individual who exposed to a pollutant, and the pollutant must be able to reach those parts of the body that are vulnerable to its effect. Because of the blockade as a result of disputed occupation of the Gaza governorates, and the large quantities of rubbles from building that destroyed by Israel bombardments during wars 2008 and 2012, the Palestinian owners of crushers plants using homemade crushers, was the only way to rebuild what was destroyed by the occupation in Gaza governorates. The researcher attempts to measure the concentration of PM10 in crushers plants during operation and to examine the health effects on the respiratory system that have occurred as a result of direct exposure of workers to particulate matter air pollution for contentious long hours of work. Due to that there is limited available data about the respiratory health effects that caused to crushers workers, and limited available data associated with concentration of PM10 in crushers plants. * Corresponding author: shahmed1989@hotmail.com (Ahmed AboShoga) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2015 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved 2. Materials and Methods The general objective of this study is to evaluate the level of PM10 air pollution in crushers plants, and their impacts on 136 Yousef Aljeesh et al.: Particulate Matter Emitted from Gravel Crushers and Their Health Impacts on Workers, Middle Governorate - Gaza, Palestine respiratory system health, vital signs and complete blood count for crusher workers. The target population of the study is (87) individual. Case (exposed) group is 40, and control (unexposed) group contains 47. The included people who work in crushers at Middle Governorate, and the ages of 15-65, and have no medical history, while excluded who do not work in the Middle Governorate, and who are under the age of 15 years or more than 65, and have past medical history. This case-control study was conducted during the period from April - August 2013 in gravel crushers, at Middle Governorate, Southern governorates, Palestine. Case group (Exposed): All workers in the six crushers at Middle Governorate who accomplished criteria, the number of workers is 40, as they worked in gravel crushers and continuously exposed to dust without using any protective devices, the exposed workers were male, their age ranged from 15-65 years, and does not have any past medical history. Control group (Unexposed): The control group contain 47 individuals who live in the same area of case group, their ages ranged from 15-65 years, do not have any past medical history, but not work in the gravel crushers Instruments: Every person included in the study was submitted to Questionnaire and Vital signs measuring (sphygmomanometer, Pulse Oximeter and thermometer). PM10 measuring device was used for all crushers plants. 3. Results This study conducted on all crushers and workers in the Middle Governorate which has six crushers distributed on all areas. PM10 Air Pollution Monitoring Data for The Six Crushers. Figure (1). Concentrations of PM10 that emitted from six crushers and the average of these concentrations Figure (2). Age of cases and control groups Public Health Research 2015, 5(5): 135-138 137 As shown in Fig (1) reveals that the emission of PM10 by the crushers varies widely from 10008 to 19807 μg/m3, with an average particulate matter contribution of 15153 μg/m3, which is about more than 100 times higher than the particulate matter (PM10) existing daily average standard of 150 μg/m3 (EPA, 2012). The results in Figure (2) show the percentage of ages for both cases and control groups. Furthermore, it shows the elevated level of ages rapprochement between the two groups, which increase the accuracy of the study. Results of Vital Signs (Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Pulse rate, Respiratory rate and Temperature) between (40) case group and (47) control group. Table (1) shows the results of independent samples T-test for vital signs (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and temperature) between (40) cases and (47) controls. Vital Signs Groups N Systolic Blood case 40 Pressure control 47 Diastolic Blood case 40 Pressure control 47 Pulse Rate case 40 control 47 Respiratory case 40 Rate control 47 case 40 Temperature control 47 Mean 131.93 117.65 80.38 73.51 84.70 75.21 23.90 20.74 37.02 36.42 SD T-Test value P-value 6.48 9.708 7.13 0.000 5.25 6.176 5.10 0.000 6.65 8.834 2.93 0.000 2.01 7.674 1.82 0.000 0.36 8.091 0.33 0.000 4. Discussion 4.1. PM10 Air Pollution Monitoring in the Six Crushers Data in table (1), reveals that the emission of PM10 by the crushers varies widely from 10008 to 19807 μg/m3, with an average PM10 contribution of 15153 μg/m3, which is about more than 100 times higher than the (PM10) existing standard of 150 μg/m3 (EPA, 2012). This is primarily due to inoperative suppression system and inadequate control. Figure (1) shows the concentrations of PM10 that emitted from six crushers and the average of these concentrations. The high PM10 concentrations in crusher plants (1 and 6) is primarily contributed by the large size of these crushers, and due to mounds of rubble and crushed stone in the vicinity of crushers, and height of the two crushers from the surface of the earth greater than others, which generate more dust and emission. These high concentrations call for stricter measures to be enforced on stone crushers. Control and suppression systems should be applied for all crushers, if dry type control and suppression systems, which adopted widely in crushers in developed countries are not accepted due to the high price and not available, while wet suppression systems have low price, available and can be used such as water spray. 4.2. The Relationship between Exposure of PM10 Air Pollution and Appearance of Respiratory System Symptoms Positive significant relationship is observed between PM10 air pollution exposure and appearance of respiratory system symptom (cough, sputum build-up and dyspnea). These results of higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the cases (exposed) than control (non exposed) are in agreement with data reported by (Oleru, 1984; Yang et al., 1996, Noor et al., 2002; Al- Neaimi et al., 2001). found a higher prevalence of the cases with cough, sputum build up and dyspnea than control. This difference was significantly related to PM10 air pollution exposure. Indeed, findings with similar statistical strength to the relationships found in this study were made by Zemap (2004) on association between PM10 air pollution exposure and respiratory symptoms among general population sample of 9651 people living in eight different study sites within Switzerland. Thishan G. (2008) showed that PM10 has strong associations with three types of respiratory illnesses, especially among children. Among these associations, the disease category which includes bronchitis, emphysema and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases showed a prominent association with a correlation coefficient of 0.717 at 99% confidence. 4.3. The Relationship between PM10 Air Pollution and Vital Signs Disturbance For over 100 years, medical staff have performed this surveillance using the same vital signs: blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature (Ahrens, 2008). Vital signs might provide surveillance for changes in their condition, recognizing early clinical deterioration and protection from harm or errors (Rogers et al, 2008). 4.3.1. Blood Pressure Blood pressure (BP) refers to the pressure exerted by blood against the arterial wall. It is influenced by cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, blood volume and viscosity and vessel wall elasticity (Fetzer, 2006). The significant relationship between PM10 air pollution and increasing blood pressure consistent with Zannobetti et al (2001) study results which showed increase in systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure with elevated concentrations of ambient particle pollution. In consistent, Hooven (2011) observed significant associations for PM10 air pollution exposure and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Indeed, number of previous studies reported increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following exposure to PM10 air pollution (Chuang, 2011 and Kim, 2010). 138 Yousef Aljeesh et al.: Particulate Matter Emitted from Gravel Crushers and Their Health Impacts on Workers, Middle Governorate - Gaza, Palestine 4.3.2. Pulse Rate Positive significant relationship is observed between PM10 air pollution and increasing pulse rate. These findings are in line with results of a study which conducted by Chuang K.. J., (2013) that indicated an increase in pulse rate in association with PM10 air pollution exposure was observed during an air pollution episode in Germany. 4.3.3. Respiratory Rate and Temperature This study show positive and significant relationship between PM10 air pollution exposure and (increasing respiratory rate and temperature). Respiratory rate is an important baseline observation and its accurate measurement is a fundamental part of assessment (Jevon, 2010). These findings are in line with Herman (2006) and Sholf (2012) study which observed significant relationship between respiratory inflammation symptoms (increasing respiratory rate and increasing temperature) and exposure of PM10 air pollution. 5. Conclusions The particulate matter that emitted from the crushers varies widely from 10008 to 19807 μg/m3, with an average particulate matter contribution of 15153 μg/m3, which is about more than 100 times higher than the particulate matter (PM10) existing standard. Respiratory tract symptoms reported in this study among the exposed workers to PM10 air pollution were cough, sputum build-up and dyspnea. These symptoms were found to be related to exposure of PM10 air pollution. Vital signs disturbances (Increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increasing pulse rate, increasing respiratory rate and temperature) reported in this study among the exposed workers. These disturbances were found to be related to exposure of PM10 air pollution. [2] Brook R.D., and Rajagopalan S., 2009 - Particulate matter, air pollution, and blood pressure. Am. Soc. Hypertens, Vol:3, P:332-350. [3] Chuang K.J.; Yan Y.H.; Chiu S.Y.; 2011 and Cheng T.J., 2013 - Long-term air pollution exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in Taiwan. Occup Environ. Med., Vol:68, P:64-68. [4] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2012 - Particle Matter (PM) Research.: (http://www.epa.gov/airscience /PM10/existing standard.htm). [5] Estimated deaths & DALYs attributable to selected environmental risk factors: 2007-World Health Organization. [6] Fetzer S., 2006 Vital signs. In: Elkin M.; Potter A.; and Perry P., Clinical skills and techniques. 6th edn. Mosby/Elsevier, St Louis. [7] Herman B., 2006 - Particulate air pollution and increasing temperature. Crit. Care Med., Vol:133, P: 134–139. [8] Hooven A., 2014 - PM10 and Blood Pressure. Lancet, Vol:27, P:7-9. [9] Hooven E., 2013 - Air Pollution, Blood Pressure, and the Risk of Hypertensive Complications During Pregnancy. Erasmus Medical Center, Netherlands. [10] Jevon P., 2010 - How to ensure patient observations lead to prompt identification of tachypnoea. NursTimes, Vol: 106, No: 2, P: 12–14. [11] Kareem M., 2010-Air Pollution in Palestine. Palestine articles, Palestine, birzeit Vol:4, P:1-2. [12] Kim J., Hong J., Lim C., Kim K., Lee S., 2010 - The effects of long-term exposure to railway and road traffic noise on subjective sleep disturbance. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol: 128, P: 2829-2835. [13] Oleru U.G., 1984 - Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to cement dust. Environ. Res., Vol: 33, No: 2, P: 379-85. [14] Porta M., 2012 - A dictionary of epidemiology. Oxford University Press, 5th. edition. New York. [15] Porta M., 2012 - A dictionary of epidemiology. Oxford University Press, 5th. edition. New York. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I reiterate my endless acknowledgement and high appreciation to all who helped. [16] Rogers A.; Dean G.; Hwang W.; and Scott L., 2008 - Role of registered nurses in error prevention, discovery and correction. Qual. Saf. Health Care. Vol: 17, No: 2, P: 117–121. [17] Sholf, Zemp E.; and Schindler C., et al., 2013 - Long-term ambient air pollution and respiratory symptoms in adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Vol: 179, P: 1552–1556. REFERENCES [1] Ahrens T., 2008 - The most important vital signs are not being measured. Aust Crit Care, Vol: 21, P: 3–5. [18] Thishan G., 2008 - Ambient PM(10) and respiratory illnesses in Colombo City, Sri Lanka. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, Klong Luong, Pathumthani, Thailand, Vol: 43, No: 9, P: 1064-1070.

... pages left unread,continue reading

Document pages: 4 pages

Please select stars to rate!

         

0 comments Sign in to leave a comment.

    Data loading, please wait...
×