eduzhai > Helth Sciences > Medical >

Retrospective prevalence of suicide among the elderly in Puerto Rico: an epidemiological study between 1980 and 2015

  • sky
  • (0) Download
  • 20211101
  • Save
https://www.eduzhai.net Public Health Research 2017, 7(2): 46-48 DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20170702.02 Puerto Rican Retrospective Elderly Suicide Prevalence Rates: An Epidemiological Study during the 1980-2015 Period José Rodríguez Gómez1,2, Rosa Janet Rodríguez Benítez1,*, Kathía Y. Rodríguez Pagán3, Dharma Rodriguez Pagan4 1University of Puerto Rico, College of Social Sciences, General Social Sciences Department, San Juan, PR 2Carlos Albizu University, Clinical Psychology Program, San Juan, PR 3University of Puerto Rico, College of Natural Sciences, Nutrition and Dietetics Department, San Juan, PR 4University of Puerto Rico, Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Demography, San Juan PR Abstract This retrospective epidemiology study presents the suicide prevalence rates in Puerto Rico (PR) during 1980-2015 period. The investigation present suicides comparisons rates between two groups, 65 years or older, and 64 years and younger, in addition to odds ratio (OR) and mean indexes. Results indicates substantial differences in the suicide prevalence rates among groups. It is concluded that the elderly population has had, in average, a double suicide risk (OR=2.15, non-significant OR’s indexes were excluded) than younger Puerto Rican population. Effective public policy to diminish suicide rates in PR, with emphasis in the elderly, was suggest. Keywords Puerto Rico Suicide rates, Elderly suicide, Epidemiology 1. Introduction During the last 35 years, elderly suicide has been a serious problem in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico (PR). Early research demonstrates major prevalence rates of suicide in elderly persons (65 years and older) as compare to younger population suicide rates [1-3]. PR has been suffering from extremely adverse socio-economic and health conditions approximately during the last 40 years that negatively affected the entire population. For instance, increases in, crime rates, scholar desertion, unemployment rates, substantial professional younger adults’ migration to the United States, cases of severe contagious diseases that affect tourism (i.e., ZIKA and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever), severe governmental debt that bring the island to bankruptcy and affect enormously all types of health services, has adverse influence the elderly mental and physical health. As demonstrated by gerontological researcher’s this population suffer from many serious physical and mental health conditions that affect prominently their wellbeing including elderly margination and abuse [4, 5]. Specific factors that affect the Puerto Rican elderly population include, but are not limited to, high poverty levels, health disparities, mental and physical higher prevalence’s rates diseases (i.e., * Corresponding author: rosa.rodriguez12@upr.edu (Rosa Janet Rodríguez Benítez) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular conditions) and social margination. With all these issues, is not surprising that Puerto Rican elderly may be at elevated risk to suicide, as compare to other subpopulations in the island of PR. 2. Methodology Public Health Data from the Health Department of Puerto Rico from 1980 to 2015 was identify to determine the numbers of suicides during the previous period. Age groups where stratify in two main groups (10- 64 years old and 65 or older) to proceeded with the rates mortality analyses according to the interest of the researchers and the report of suicide rates of the Puerto Rico Health Department Statistics. Odds ratios (OR) were also calculated to determine the risk probability of suicide in the two groups. OR is a risk analysis of specific factors that impinge in the elderly suicide rates. Odds ratio have turn out to be increasingly important in health, specific in epidemiological research and decision-making. The OR evaluates whether the odds of a specific incident is the same for two groups. Specifically, the OR measures the ratio of the odds that an incident or outcome will occur to the odds of the event not happening. Usually, the researcher measures the ratio of the odds of a disease or a death from a specific injury, illness or phenomenon, happening to the odds of the death not occurring [6]. After calculations of mortality rates and OD’s ratios between both age groups comparison within them where performed. Public Health Research 2017, 7(2): 46-48 47 3. Results After analyzed the mortality rates of both age groups, in addition to compared OR mean within the groups, we found that the older group (65 or older) continue to present the highest suicide prevalence rate (See Table 1). Furthermore, mean OR index is 2.15, meaning the elderly group have twice the probability to attain suicide than the younger group (See Table 2). In addition, mean suicide rate for the whole island of PR during the last 35 years is 152.99 as compare to the elderly mean suicide rate population (65 or older) that is 59.17. Table 1. Suicide prevalence rates in Puerto Rico: 1980-2015 Total population 65 year or older population Year Number of N Rate suicide Number of N Rate suicide 1980 3,196,520 292 9.13 252,569 42 16.62 1981 3,237,209 302 9.32 263,609 66 25.03 1982 3,269,761 300 9.17 272,440 51 18.71 1983 3,302,313 328 9.93 281,270 61 21.68 1984 3,334,865 300 8.99 290,102 59 19.99 1985 3,367,416 269 7.98 298,933 65 22.67 1986 3,399,968 310 9.11 307,766 74 24.04 1987 3,432,519 272 7.92 316,597 60 18.95 1988 3,465,072 314 9.06 325,430 68 20.89 1989 3,497,623 327 9.34 334,260 61 18.24 1990 3,522,037 371 10.50 340,884 79 23.17 1991 3,571,328 355 9.94 348,896 85 24.36 1992 3,603,755 31J 8.71 355,868 60 16.80 1993 3,643,638 324 8.89 362,661 60 16.54 1994 3,687,158 355 9.62 369,481 71 19.22 1995 3,731,006 291 7.80 375,875 48 12.77 1996 3,782,862 331 8.75 382,118 70 18.31 1997 3,828,061 288 7.52 388,850 49 12.60 1998 3,860,091 32J 8.39 394,511 70 17.74 1999 3,889,507 299 7.69 399,887 60 15.00 2000 3,915,798 315 8.04 407,101 50 12.28 2001 3,839,810 280 7.29 437,228 50 11.43 2002 3,858,806 248 6.43 449,176 46 10 24 2003 3,878,532 207 5 34 463,126 55 11.87 2004 3,894,855 321 8.24 476,198 66 13.86 2005 3,912,054 321 8.21 489,819 55 13.27 2006 3,947,759 285 7.21 494,274 51 10.31 2007 3,782,995 308 8.14 506,536 40 7 90 2008 3,760,866 340 9.04 520,163 64 12.30 2009 3,740,410 356 9.52 541,747 71 13.11 2010 3,725,789 353 9.47 541,998 63 11.62 2011 3,686,771 326 8.8J 563,947 44 7.80 2012 3,642,281 314 8.62 582,545 51 8.75 2013 3,595,839 308 8.57 600,394 53 10.49 2014 3,518,397 231 6.51 617,007 55 8.91 2015 3,411,307 234 6.86 641,223 57 8.89 * Negative rates differences are the results of main prevalence suicides rates in younger cohorts 64 year or younger population N 2,943,951 2,973,600 2,997,321 3,021,043 3,044,763 3,068,483 3,092,202 3,115,922 3,139,642 3,163,363 3,181,153 3,222,432 3,247,887 3,280,977 3,317,677 3,355,131 3,400,744 3,439,211 3,465,580 3,489,620 3,508,697 3,402,582 3,406,630 3,415,406 3,418,557 3,422,235 3,453,185 3,276,459 3,240,703 3,198,553 3,183,791 3,122,824 3,059,735 2,995,445 2,931,390 2,770,084 Number of suicide 250 236 249 267 241 204 236 212 246 266 292 270 254 286 284 243 261 239 254 239 265 230 202 152 255 256 234 268 276 285 290 282 263 245 176 177 Rate 8.49 7.93 8.30 8.83 7.94 6.61 7.29 6.80 7.83 8.40 9.17 8.37 7.82 8.71 8.56 7.24 7.67 6.94 7.32 6.84 7.55 6.76 5.93 7.06 7.46 7.48 6.77 8.18 8.52 8.91 9.11 9.03 8.60 8.18 6.00 6.39 Rate diference 8.13 17.10 10.11 12.85 12.05 15.46 16.75 12.15 13.06 9.84 14.00 15.99 9.04 7.83 10.66 5.53 10.64 5.66 10.42 8.16 4.73 4,67 4,31 7.42 6.40 5.79 3.54 -0.28* 3.79 4.20 2.52 -1.23* 0.16 2.31 2.91 2.50 Table 2. OR’s indexes between 0-64 years and 65 or older Year OR p-value Year OR p-value 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1.96 < 0.001 1992 3.16 < 0.001 1993 2.36 < 0.001 1994 2.45 < 0.001 1995 2.57 < 0.001 1996 3.27 < 0.001 1997 3.15 < 0.001 1998 2.79 < 0.001 1999 2.67 < 0.001 2000 2.17 < 0.001 2001 2.53 < 0.001 2002 2.91 < 0.001 2003 2.16 < 0.001 1.9 < 0.001 2.25 < 0.001 1.76 < 0.001 2.39 < 0.001 1.81 < 0.001 2.42 < 0.001 2.19 < 0.001 1.63 < 0.001 1.69 < 0.001 1.47 < 0.001 1.47 < 0.001 *All OR indexes are statistically significant with the exception of 2007, 2010-13 years. Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 OR 1.81 1.77 1.52 0.97 1.44 1.47 1.28 0.86 1.02 1.28 1. 48 1.39 p-value < 0.001 0.006 0.006 > 0.05* 0.008 0.0034 0.078* > 0.05* > 0.05* 0.077* 0.01 0.029 48 José Rodríguez Gómez et al.: Puerto Rican Retrospective Elderly Suicide Prevalence Rates: An Epidemiological Study during the 1980-2015 Period 4. Conclusions Puerto Rican elderly population has double the risk of suicide in the last 35 years. Currently precarious socio-economic conditions of PR make the elderly population at a higher risk than other subjects due do fragile conditions they experienced. It is expected that this phenomenon will not change in a near future unless interventional programs to prevent suicide be activated and effectively promoted [7]. It is imperative to foment sensitive crisis prevention programs and public policies in Puerto Rico with emphasis in the elderly population. Governmental and private agencies efforts need to put together strategies to prevent suicides in PR. REFERENCES [1] Alsina-Pomales, S. & Rodríguez-Gómez, J. R. (1995). El suicidio en ancianos puertorriqueños. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 27(2), 263-282. [2] Rodríguez-Gómez, J & Alsina-Pomales, S. (1994). The suicide phenomenon in the Puerto Rican elderly population. Revista de Psiquiatría 1, 9-11. [3] Rodríguez-Gómez (2010). Prevalencia de Suicidio en la Población Gerontológica de Puerto Rico, Psicología y Salud, 1, 89-96. [4] Alvarado, A. (2000). Factores de Riesgo socio-demográficos relacionados al suicidio en Puerto Rico y estimación prospectiva de la prevalencia de suicidio en Puerto Rico para el 2015. Non published doctoral dissertation. Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan Campus, San Juan, PR. [5] Health Department of Puerto Rico (2015). (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Salud Estadísticas Vitales). Downloaded on Feb 23, 2017 http://www.salud.gov.pr/Estadisticas-Registros-y-Publicacio nes/Pages/Estadisticas-Vitales.aspx. [6] McHugh, M.L. (2009). The odds ratio: calculation, usage, and interpretation. Biochemia Medica 19(2):120-6. Downloaded on February 21, 2017 from: http://www.biochemia-medica.com/content/odds-ratio-calcul ation-usage-and-interpretation. [7] Rodríguez-Gómez, J. & Collazo, L. (2003). Estudio Epidemiológico Retrospectivo sobre el fenómeno del suicidio en los ancianos Puertorriqueños. Revista Thomsom de Psicología, 1, 23-37.

... pages left unread,continue reading

Document pages: 3 pages

Please select stars to rate!

         

0 comments Sign in to leave a comment.

    Data loading, please wait...
×