Job satisfaction of nurse educators in parson Valley, Malaysia
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Nursing Science 2012, 2(4): 29-33 DOI: 10.5923/j.nursing.20120204.01 Job Satisfaction among the Nurse Educators in the Klang Valley, Malaysia Wai Mun Tang1,*, Muhammad Faizal A. Ghani2 1Nursing Division, International M edical University (IM U), Bukit Jalil, 57000, M alaysia 2Department of Educational M anagement, Planning and Policy, University of M alaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, M alaysia Abstract The aims of this study were to identify the priority factors that contribute towards the job satisfaction and determine the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and salary earned by the nurse educators in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The study had a cross-sectional design and included nurse educators (n= 66, response rate 82.5%) working in five higher educational institutions. Data collection was conducted with a questionnaire consisting of 56 ite ms. The respondents reported that the three highest priority factors that determine their job satisfaction were salary, benefit entit lement and working conditions. Furthermore, the study also revealed that there was a significant relationship between the level of job satisfaction and salary earned among the nurse educators. Keywords Job Satisfaction, Nurse Educators, Nursing Shortage, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 1. Introduction Nursing shortage is a global phenomenon in the health care discip line. In Malaysia, this phenomenon was ev ident through a recent report by the A merican Society of Registered Nurses (2007) which indicated that Malaysia needs 20,000 reg istered nurses in all specialization and approximately 1,000 of Malaysian nurses are leaving the nursing profession annually. Hence, one of the strategies to alleviate the general nursing shortage would be to train more nurses by establishing more nursing schools. In response, the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia and the Nursing Board of Malaysia has been working closely with both the public and private higher education institutions to increase the number of nurses by providing more nursing courses as well as increased the total number of nursing students. However, the dramat ic expansion in the number of higher educational institutions offering nursing programmes and increased in the number of nursing students is a problematic matter because nursing education is also facing the challenge of nurse educators’ shortage related to job satisfaction[3,4,5]. Thus, the shortages have created a negative effect on health care delivery systems as well as community as a whole. The topic of job satisfaction among nurse educators has b een stud ied wid ely b y a n u mber o f researchers and approached fro m several different points of view such as * Corresponding author: WaiMun_Tang@imu.edu.my (Wai Mun Tang) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved factors related to co-workers, work itself, wo rking conditions, remuneration, professional gro wth, pro motion as well as supervision[3,7]. Previous studies had revealed that high job satisfaction has been positively associated with the imp roved productivity of the employees as well as the retention of emp loyees. On the other hand, low job satisfaction has been lin ked with nurse educators leaving the profession and resulting in the shortage of nurse educators. Although the subject matter o f job satisfaction among nurse educators has been studied previously, there is a lacking of previous studies on job satisfaction among the nurse educators in Malaysia. Hence, in view of nursing education precedes nursing practice, it is crit ical to address the needs of the nursing educators by exp loring the job satisfaction topic among the nurse educators to improve job satisfaction among the nurse educators. The Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction served as the research framework for this study. This study was supported by the theoretical perspectives of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction which proposed that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are originated from distinctive groups of variables which are called the hygiene factors and motivator factors. In th is context, the hygiene factors including pay, interpersonal relations–supervisor; subordinates and peers, supervision-technical, organization policy and administration, job security, working conditions, factors in personal life and status. On the other hand, the other set of factors are those called the motivator factors, if present serve to inspire the individual to greater endeavour and accomplishment. The mot ivator factors include recognition, achievement, possibility of growth, advancement, responsibility and work itself. 30 Wai M un Tang et al.: Job Satisfaction among the Nurse Educators in the Klang Valley, M alaysia Table 1.1. Reliabilit y of inst rument using coefficient Alpha (Cronbach’s Alpha) Sect ion Section A Demographic particulars Section B Job satisfaction among the nurse educators Achievement and Recognition The Work Itself and Responsibility Advancement Policies and Administration Interpersonal Relations Supervision Salary and Job Security Working Conditions Section C Factors contributing to job satisfaction Grand Total Item Number 1 – 8 1 – 10 11 – 17 18 – 22 23 – 25 26 – 30 31 – 34 35 – 40 41 - 44 1-12 Coefficient Alpha - .739 .838 .810 .896 .791 .967 .766 .700 .816 Total Coefficient Alpha - .941 .816 .926 Hence, the theoretical perspective of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Job Sat isfaction addressed the effects of hygiene and motivation factors as they correlate to job satisfaction of the workers. Furthermore, the theories of Herzberg also suggested that a disconnection between the needs and motivators of nurse educators may contribute to job dissatisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the priority factors that contribute towards the job satisfaction and determine whether there was any significant relationship between the level of job satisfaction and salary earned by the nurse educators. 2. Methodology 2.1. The Partici pants The sample criterion was ‘nurse educators who teach full-time nursing courses: Diplo ma in Nursing, Post-basic/ Advanced Diplo ma Nursing, Bachelo r in Nursing and Master in Nursing in higher educational institutions.’ A convenient sampling method was applied. In this study, the estimated samp ling fro m a population of ten nursing institutions was consists of about 100 nurse educators in the Klang Valley. Therefore, according to the table provided by Dav id Van A mburg of Market Source, Inc, the study required a samp le size of at least 79 subjects in order to attain the desired 95% of level of confident. In view of this, therefore, this study invited 80 nurse educators from ten nursing institutions in the Klang Valley to participate in this study. The questionnaires were distributed to a total of 80 nurse educators in the five h igher educational institutions. A total of 66 participants returned the completed questionnaire and a response rate of 82.5% were achieved. 2.2. Instrument A pilot survey questionnaire was developed by the researcher through comprehensive literature rev iew. Two panels were engaged from the nursing faculty to review the content validity analysis of the instrument. The internal consistency of the scales are summarized in Tab le 1.1, and ranged fro m 0.816 to 0.941. A convenience sample of 20 nurse educators fro m two higher educational institutions was used in the pilot study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic informat ion, as shown in Table 3.1. The second section consists of the questionnaire related to the current job satisfaction: achievement and recognition, the work itself and responsibility, advancement, policy and administration, interpersonal relat ions, supervision, salary and job security and working conditions. This section was based on a self-assessment rat ing on six-point Likert-scale. The third section of the questionnaire included the factors that contributed towards nurse educators’ job satisfaction. The participants were required to ran k the importance of the items on ten-point Likert-scale. A score of ten points on an item would mean that the participant feels the item is the most important and a low score of one point on the item would mean that the participant feels that the item is the least important. 2.3. Data Collection Procedure First, the researcher contacted ten higher educational institutions to ask for the study participation. Five h igher educational institutions had agreed to partake in the study. Once the higher educational institutions agreed to participate in the study, all participants were info rmed that permission to conduct the research had been obtained from the respective higher educational institutions and participation in the study was voluntary. The researcher also informed the part icipants that access to the surveys would be tightly controlled by the researchers and names of institutions or persons would not be revealed in any manner for their confidentiality. The questionnaire was administered direct ly to the sample using face-to-face mode and also with the assistance of two appointed questionnaire administrators. All participants were requested to send International Journal of Nursing Science 2012, 2(4): 29-33 31 completed questionnaires directly to the researcher or using significance of relat ionship between the level of job the enclosed self-addressed stamped envelopes. satisfaction and salary earned by nurse educators. 2.4. Data Analysis Data were analysed using Statistical Package SPSS version 14 software. Data regarding demographics are presented as frequencies, percentages, mean (M) and standard deviation (SD). Ch i-square test was used to test the 3. Results 3.1. Demographic Characteristics Table 3.1. Demographic characteristics (n=66) Ch aract erist ics Age 25 – 34 years old 35 – 44 years old 45 – 54 years old 55 – 64 years old Academic rank Nursing tutor Nursing lecturer Major job activity Classroom teaching Combination of clinical and classroom t eachin g Current basic salary per month Less t han RM 2500 RM 2500 – RM 3500 RM 3501 – RM 4500 RM 4501 – RM 5500 More than RM 5500 Highest educational degree earned Post-basic certificate/ advanced diploma Bachelor degree Master degree Doctorate degree Prior clinical experience 1 – 5 years 6 – 10 years 11 – 15 years Charact erist ics of higher educat ional in st it ut ion s College University college University n (%) 24 (36.4) 35 (53.0) 6 (9.1) 1 (1.5) 32 (48.5) 34 (51.5) 34 (51.5) 32 (48.5) 0 (0) 16 (24.2) 24 (36.4) 14 (21.2) 12 (18.2) 2 (3.0) 48 (72.7) 14 (21.3) 2 (3.0) 15 (22.7) 32 (48.5) 19 (28.8) 32 (48.5) 23 (34.8) 11 (16.7) Tot al Mean ± SD 36.44 ± 6.87 Table 3.2. Priority factors contributing to job satisfaction sorted by highest mean rating (n= 66) Factors contributing to job satisfaction Salary Benefits entitlement Working conditions Cont inuous professional development The accurate annual appraisal/ evaluation of job Relationships with the people that I am working with Career advancement Work itself and responsibility Security of my current position Achievement Recognition Organizations’ policy and administration Note: *Scores ranged from 1 (the least important) to 10 (the most important) M SD 9.59 .764 9.32 1.04 9.17 1.06 9.06 1.05 8.94 1.14 8.88 1.16 8.74 1.34 8.74 1.41 8.65 1.06 8.14 1.40 7.94 1.65 7.03 2.36 32 Wai M un Tang et al.: Job Satisfaction among the Nurse Educators in the Klang Valley, M alaysia Table 3.3. Percentage and count s of job satisfact ion by salary earned Salary Earned RM 2501 – RM 3500 RM 3501 – RM 4500 RM 4501 – RM 5500 More than RM 5500 Low 18 (56.3) 21 (29.2) 28 (50.0) 5 (8.3) Job Satisfaction Fair Good 14 (43.8) 0 (.0) 36 (50.0) 15 (20.8) 12 (21.4) 16 (28.6) 15 (25.0) 40 (66.7) Row % 32 (100) 72 (100) 56 (100) 60 (100) Chi Square 67.17 Note:**=level of signifi cant confidence 0.05 (2-tailed) p < .05 3.2. Priority Factors Contri buting to Job Satisfaction The priority factors contributing to job satisfaction are presented in Tab le 3.2. The respondents reported that the two highest ratings were salary (M = 9.59), followed by benefit entitlement (M = 9.32) and working conditions (M = 9.17). On the other hand, items with the three lowest ratings were achievement (M = 8.14), followed by recognition (M = 7.94) and organizations’ policy and admin istration (M = 7.03). As conclusion, the predominant prio rity factor that contributed in job satisfaction among the respondents appeared to be primarily ‘salary’ and ‘benefit entitlement’ which belong to the hygiene factor according to Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory. Conversely, motivation factors of Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory in this context referring to ‘achievement’ and ‘recognition’ appeared to be the least in contributing to job satisfaction. 3.3. Test of Significance of Rel ati onshi p between Job Satisfaction and Salary Earned The Ch i-square statistics was used to test for significance of the relationship between job satisfaction and salary earned. Table 3.3 presented the findings fro m the Chi-square analysis. The result showed significant relationship between job satisfaction and salary earned; Chi-Square (6; n=66) = 67.17, p< .05. The analysis findings indicated that the lower the salary earned, the lower is the job satisfaction. As conclusion, the analysis findings indicated that the lower the salary earned, the lower is the job satisfaction. 4. Discussion This study aimed at identify ing the priority factors that contribute towards the job satisfaction. In addition, the aim of this study is to also determine whether there was a significant relat ionship between job satisfaction and salary earned by the nurse educators. 4.1. Priority Factors Contri buting to Job Satisfaction Priority factors contributing to job satisfaction are salary, benefit entitlement and working conditions. On the other hand, achievement, recognition and organizat ions’ policy/administration factors were rated the least important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The findings of this study were in totality were inconsistent with Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction because majority of the respondents identified that hygiene factors (salary, benefit entitlement and wo rking conditions) are the predominant priority factor that contributed in job satisfaction. In contrast, motivation factors (achievement and recognition) of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction were identified as the least important factors in contributing to job satisfaction. According to Herzberg’s Theory, hygiene factors cannot produce job satisfaction autonomously, but their nonexistence can lead to job dissatisfaction. On the other hand, job satisfaction is generated through the motivator factors which serve to inspire the individual to g reater endeavour and acco mp lis h men t[ 9]. In another perspective, the research findings also may suggesting that the hygiene factors characteristics such as salary and work environ ment among the sample of the study were not met adequately. The inadequacy of the provision in the terms of hygiene factors could be one of the possible reasons for the sample to ran k the hygiene factors as the most priority contributing factors to job satisfaction. This is true because according to Herzberg’s Theory, the mot ivational factors would be apparent and exist in long-term if only the hygiene factors have been fulfilled and addressed. 4.2. The Rel ationshi p betweenthe Job Satisfaction and Salary Earned B y the Nurse Educators The relationship between the job satisfaction and salary earned by the nurse educatorsshowed significantly related. This is in accordance with p revious literature findings, which proposed that nurse educators with higher salary ranges were significantly more satisfied[3,4]. Furthermore, salary has been described as an essential element towards job satisfaction as well as the intention to stay among the nurse educators. Hence, the research findings of this study were consistent with those found in the literature. 4.3. Li mitati ons Limitations of this study include a convenience sampling method. There was a potential non-response bias and the findings may not be generalized. 5. Conclusions International Journal of Nursing Science 2012, 2(4): 29-33 33 The increasing need for professional nurses had greatly resulted in the mounting demand for qualified nurse educators to train and guide the future generation of nurses. The shortage of qualified nurse educators would subsequently not only affecting the quality of nursing education but also jeopardizing the overall quality of healthcare delivery.Therefore, ad ministrators and the respective personnel such as the human resource department need to address and enhance the job satisfaction among the nurse educators. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the job satisfaction among the nurse educators in the aspects of priority factors that contribute towards job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction and salary earned. The findings of the study revealed that nurse educators placed a heavy emphasis on the hygiene factors (salary, benefit entitlement and working conditions) in Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Job Sat isfaction. These factors were ranked as the most important factors that contributed to job satisfaction if compared with motivator factors. Furthermo re, it was also evident in th is study that job satisfaction is significantly related to salary earned by the nurse educators. Thus, one of the most significant approaches that can be derived fro m the research findings would be reviewing the current salary scale among the nurse educators since the study revealed that job satisfaction is significantly related to salary earned by the nurse educators. This approach would possibly boost the job satisfaction of the existing as well as prospect nurse educator. Besides, this study also ought to serve as a foundation for other researchers to further explore the aspect of job satisfaction among the nurse educators in Malaysia. Job satisfaction is an important determinant towards the future nursing education as well as healthcare delivery. Thus, recruit ment and retention strategies are necessary to bridge the nurse educators to the job satisfaction needs. REFERENCES  American Society of Registered Nurses. (2007, June). 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