Cognition of effective clinical tutors among nursing undergraduates: Oman
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Nursing Science 2013, 3(2): 38-44 DOI: 10.5923/j.nursing.20130302.02 Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Perception of Effective Clinical Instructor: Oman Girija K. Madhavanprabhakaran.*, Raghda K. Shukri., Jahara Hayudini., Suresh K. Narayanan College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, M uscat, Sultanate of Oman Abstract Clinical instructors’ behaviors play a key role in learning process of students. This study explored the effective clinical instructors characteristics perceived important by Omani undergraduate nursing students of College of Nursing (CON) at Su ltan Qaboos University (SQU). Permission fro m ethical and research co mmittee in the CON at SQU was obtained. A forty items questionnaire on a four point Likert- scale was administered to120 students of CON who were exposed to clinical instructions at least for a year. Data were co llected during the last two weeks of clinical posting in the spring 2010, April 20th to May 5th. It was found that both male and female Omani nursing students rated professional competence of instructors as the most important characteristic and instructors’ relationship with students as the second most important characteristic without any discrepancy (p >0.05). Male and female students’ perceptions on instructors’ relationships with students was found to be significantly different (p <0.05). Objective evaluation, role modeling, clinical competence and commun ication skills, respecting students’ indiv iduality were ranked as first five most effective clinical instructor characteristics. Students perceived 4:1 student- teacher ratio as the most optimal learning environment. These results may assist faculty to appreciate students’ views and acknowledge the areas of success as well as areas that needs improve ment. Keywords Clin ical Teaching, Effective Clin ical Instructor, Oman Nursing Co llege 1. Introduction Nu rsing as a p ract ice d iscip line, requ ires students to develop clin ical s kills th at are essential in caring. The dynamic process of clin ical instruction occurs in a variety of so cio -cu lt u ral con text s an d th e b eh av io r o f clin ical instructors play an important role in the learning process of students. Clinical instructors have the opportunity to greatly influence their students’ learn ing who eventually graduate and shape nursing practice. Clinical instructors must possess effect ive t each ing characterist ics such as p ro fess ion al kno wledge, ro le modeling and clin ical co mpetence with communicat ion skills to facilitate optimal clinical learn ing. Cu rrent p rocedures used to evaluate teach ing in healthrelated inst ruct ion areas are g enerally stu den t -b ased . Although peer and self-evaluation are in use, most Omani univers it ies rely p rimarily on students’ evaluat ion when attempting to quantify an instructor’s teaching effectiveness. Ev idence suggests that student ratings can be reliable and valid indicator of effective teaching. Despite the need for effect ive clin ical educat ion , the criteria fo r det ermin ing effect iv e clin ical t each ing remains p oo rly d efin ed . * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Girija K. Madhavanprabhakaran.) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved Clearly, there is an urgent and compelling need to gain better understanding of what constitutes effective clinical instruction. Nursing students’ perception of effective clinical teacher behavior is an important indicator to modify and facilitate effective clin ical instruction. Sultan Qaboos University is the only government-funded university in Sultanate of Oman. The College of Nursing was founded in 2002 with an annual intake of 60 students, offering a baccalaureate degree in nursing and is the pioneer of its kind in Oman. Considering the prime importance of clin ical teaching in nursing, a 6:1 rat io of student-teacher has been implemented except in final semester with advanced clin ical nursing course where, an individual preceptorship model was adopted. Clin ical teaching learning stands unique and is one among the credibility of this College of Nursing. So authors were interested to know which of the clinical instructor characteristics are most beneficia l to the students’ clin ical learning and what are their opinions on best studentteacher ratio for a co mfortable learn ing environment. This study explored the effective clin ical instructor characteristics perceived important by Omani nursing students. 2. Background Clin ical train ing as the core of nursing education is vital for the preparation of professional nurses. The quality of student - clinica l instructor interaction can either fac ilitate or International Journal of Nursing Science 2013, 3(2): 38-44 39 hinder the students’ learning in the clin ical area. Clinical teaching effectiveness is difficult to be evaluated in diverse, often fast-paced and highly complex clinical settings compared to mo re controlled environments such as seminars, laboratories and classrooms for theoretical teachings. Most researches on effectiveness of clinical instructors have compared students and faculty perceptions of effective clin ical teachers. Though students and faculty differ on their views of most and least important characteristics of effective clin ical instructors, overall they agree that the best clinical teachers should have sound interpersonal skills, good at providing feedback, clinically co mpetent and know how to teach effectively. Previous studies demonstrated that there were differences in the perception on effective clinical instructor characteristic by students of different academic levels[2, 3]. Evidence of good role modeling and mutual respect is widely accepted by the students. Heshmati-Nabavi Fatemeh, Vanaki & Zohreh determined the perceptions of Iranian nursing students and faculty members’ towards effect ive clinical educator characteristics and they identified five key features of effective clin ical educators: (1) personal traits; (2) meta-cognition; (3) making clinical learn ing enjoyable; (4) being a source of support; (5) being a role model. The core variable ‘‘professional approach” in clinical education integrates these categories. They concluded that effective clin ical educators are those who are in harmony with students and act as a role model for students and patients. The authors also concluded that the results are a direct result of the specific socio-cultural conditions of nursing profession in Iran a Middle East country with Islam as religion and have almost similar socio-cultural conditions of nursing profession like Oman. Kelly explo red student’s perception of effective clinical teaching over 14 years (1989-2003). During that period he aimed to co mpare perceptions of students in diplo ma and baccalaureate programs within existing clinical contexts in a Canadian University. He found that students are remarkably consistent and rated teachers’ knowledge as the most important characteristic followed by feedback and communication skills. Teacher’s knowledge in clinical settings, curriculu m, the learner and teaching/learn ing theory were considered critically impo rtant for being an effective clinical teacher. Johnson_Farmer and Frenn presented at the 17th International Nu rsing Research Congress in Montreal and synthesized the findings fro m 17 nurse educators into a statement that teaching excellence is dynamic p rocess involving active engagement of students and faculty. The study recommended that faculty must be student-centered, knowledgeable, should use mult iple teaching strategies which encourage all students into active questioning and learning through discovery. Furthermore, facu lty should always clearly commun icate expectations and outcomes to students. In a descriptive, retrospective qualitative study on strength and weakness of faculty teaching performance over a period of 4 years fro m 1998- 2002 in a U.S. Un iversity, identified faculty being knowledgeable, strategic teacher with professionalis m, being supportive and creating positive learning environ ment with displaying of scholarly traits as faculty strength. Teaching and nursing co mpetence was rated as more important nurse educator competence than evaluation skills, personality factors and relationships with students in a quantitative descriptive correlation study by Johnson, et al using nursing teacher questionnaire among 348 nurse educators in Norway. Lee conducted a study entitled “nursing students' and clin ical educators' perceptions of characteristics of effective clin ical educators” in Australia. They ad min istered the Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI) to undergraduate nursing students and clinical educators simu ltaneously to explore the perceived characteristics of effective clinical educators. When compared both students' and educators' perceptions of characteristics that contributed to effective clin ical education, significant differences and commonalities were noted. The authors concluded that interpersonal relationships were the most highly valued characteristic rated by both students and clinical educators, and both groups ranked the subset of personality as the lowest amongst five categories of NCTEI. This Western study highlights clinical instructor interpersonal relationships. Clinical teacher’s effectiveness has been a popular area of study in nursing, Knox and Mogan’s Nursing Clin ical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI-1985) was used in many studies[2, 10]. NCTEI is a reliable and valid tool describes discrete teacher characteristics grouped in five subscales which are teaching ability, interpersonal relationship, personality traits, nursing co mpetence and evaluation. The Clin ical Teacher Characteristics Instrument (CTCI) was used by Berg man in an extension study on faculty and student perceptions of effective c lin ical teachers in 1990 following an init ial study of its same kind wh ich was done by Bro wn in 1981 who developed Clinical Teacher Characteristics Instrument to assess faculty and students perceptions of effective clinical teachers. This instrument CTCI has 20 statements of effective clin ical instructor characteristics grouped into three dimensions 1) professional competence 2) relat ionship with students 3) personal attributes. Nahas exp lored Jordanian undergraduate nursing students’ perception of effective clinical teacher characteristics using CTCI reported that the nursing students rated the professional competence of clinical teacher as the most important characteristic. The study highlighted that third year students perceived clin ical teachers relat ionships with students as most important whereas fourth year students rated personal qualities of clin ical teacher as very important effective clin ical teacher characteristics. The Effective Clinical Teaching Behaviors Inventory (ECTB) developed by Zimmerman and Westfall is a 43-item, 5 point Likert scale used by Wolf. Seven characteristics of clinical excellence reported by Irby are teacher’s knowledge, their clear and well organized presentation skills, clinical skills, enthusiasm, skillful interaction with students, ability to provide clinical 40 Girija K. M adhavanprabhakaran. et al.: Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Perception of Effective Clinical Instructor: Oman supervision and above all, modeling pro fessional characteristics. The three key ro les of clin ical instructors are role modeling, clin ical supervision and instructional leadership/scholarship. He also emphasized that faculty should serve as role models and mentors to students. The ro le modeling process should be purposeful that demonstrate the knowledge, skills, attitudes and ethical behaviors that students should acquire and cherish throughout their professional life . An earlier survey among Omani undergraduate nursing students, an unpublished study by Shukri et al in 2006 as a part of feedback of nursing program revealed that clinical instructors were professionally co mpetent with good knowledge and clin ical skills. Though students appreciated teaching ability o f clinical teachers, an area of imp rovement in their co mmunication style and friendly approach to students (12%) and fairness in grading (21%) were suggested. Overall students were satisfied with clinical teachers’ professional co mpetency. Ongoing students’ evaluation of clin ical instructors also revealed similar findings. Students’ cultural background and their educational beliefs, values and practices are unique to Omani nursing students as they all belongs to Islam and hailing fro m extended families with strong family t ies. This study explored nursing students’ perception of important characteristics of clin ical instructors. Multicultural faculty fro m Asia, Midd le East and Africa are involved in clinical teaching of Omani nursing students. It is therefore important to emphasize those characteristics that are perceived as important by these students in order to facilitate clinical learning. Teachers being aware o f the students’ most rated effective behavior of the clinical instructor; their teaching strategies and attitudes may be reinforced, changed or developed to maximize effective clin ical teaching. Effective clin ical teaching makes nursing students appreciate clinical learning more. This exp lorative study determined the Omani nursing students’ perceptions of effective clin ical instructor characteristics, essential for enhancing clinical teaching learning, which is the core of the Omani BSN nursing education. Objecti ves of the study were to: 1. Determine the important characteristics of the effective clin ical instructor perceived by nursing students in College of Nursing at SQU. 2. Examine the differences between male and female nursing students’ perceptions of the important characteristics of a clinical instructor. 3. Exp lore the differences in perception of students at different levels of academic year on important characteristics of clinical instructor. 4. Find out the best student teacher ratio for clin ical instruction as perceived by the SQU nursing students. 3. Methods An explorative cross-sectional quantitative survey approach was used to elicit learner’s views on most effective clin ical instructor characteristics which impact them in clin ical learn ing. Nursing students of College of Nursing at SQU were the population of this study. Using convenient sampling method, 120 Omani nursing students of all cohorts who were exposed to clinical instruction in the clinical settings were invited to participate in the study. Students who were exposed only to skill lab teaching and never exposed to clin ical settings were excluded fro m the study. 3.1. Measurements The newly developed Effective Clinical Instructor Characteristics Inventory (ECICI) is self-ad min istered questionnaire adapted fro mp revious tools such as 1) Nursing Clin ical Teacher Effect iveness Inventory. 2) The Effective Clinical Teach ing Behaviors Inventory. 3) Clin ical Teacher Characteristic Instrument. Few changes were made based on major concepts cited from the literature and modified to be culture specific. The adapted questionnaire in itially had 45-items categorized into three subgroups namely Pro fessional Co mpetence, Relationship with Students and Personal Attributes. After content validity by six experts, the final validated questionnaire had only 40 items in three sections. Section-I contains demographic data such as gender, cohort, number of exposure to clinical instructors. Section-II, listed 38 items of clinical instructor characteristics to be rated, using a four point Likert - rating scale, ranging fro m “most impo rtant” to “unimportant”. (1= unimportant, 2 = less important, 3 = important and 4=most important). These 38 statements of clinical instructor characteristics were grouped into three categories as (1) Pro fessional Co mpetence with 18 statements (2) Relationship with Students consisted of 8 statements (3) Personal Attributes with 12 statements. Section III, consisted of two open ended questions which addressed the rank order of the five most effective clinical instructor characteristic and the best student-teacher ratio. Under the professional competence category items related to clinical instructors’ knowledge, clin ical skills, role modeling behaviors, teaching and evaluation skills and being available in the clin ical settings were included. Respecting student as an individual, being approachable, honest, supportive and helpful with roo m for free d iscussion were the items listed under the category of relationship with students. Good communicat ion skills, collaborative skills, being responsible, confidential, organized, pro mpt and exercising self control with patience were the ite ms under the category of personal attributes. 3.2. Vali dity and Reliability of the Tool The content validity of the newly developed self-ad min istered questionnaire adapted fro m previous tools was evaluated to determine relevance of the items to the concepts by expert reviewers and pilot testing. Two doctoral faculty members and four master prepared clinical instructors with expert ise in teaching baccalaureate nursing International Journal of Nursing Science 2013, 3(2): 38-44 41 students validated the questionnaire. According to experts’ suggestions and pilot results, five items were deleted and three items were reworded for better clarity. The final modified questionnaire had 40 items. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was 0.87; demonstrating the reliab ility of the tool. 3.3. Data Collection Procedure Permission from ethical and research committee in the CON at SQU was obtained. Consent was obtained from each student after clarifying the purpose and ensuring confidentiality of the data. Researchers personally contacted each available student of second year to final year (n=120), who were exposed to clinical instructions and admin istered the questionnaire. Students were asked to self-rate the questionnaire in presence of the researcher, for clarification if needed. It took on average 10-15 minutes to co mplete the questionnaire. Data were collected during the last two weeks of clinical posting in the spring of 2010 (April 20th to May 5th). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Both descriptive and inferential statistics including frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation and “t” test were conducted to identify the gender difference and differences in perception of students at different levels of academic year. 4.1. Socio-demographic Data A total of 120 students participated in the study. Table 1 show that 70% of the samp les were female. The gender distribution concurs with the overall gender distribution of the nursing students in this College of Nursing. Most of the students were (41.6%) in their fourth year, 37.5 % in the third and about 21% in the second year. Almost all students (99.1 %) were exposed to clinical instructions by more than five clin ical instructors. Table 1. Distribution of Male and Female Nursing Students by Academic Year (n=120) Gender Male Female Second Year n (%) 5 (4.17%) 20 (16.7%) Third Year n (%) 15 (12.5%) 30 (25%) Fourth Year n (%) 16 (13.33%) 34 (28.3) Total n (%) 36 (30%) 70%) 4.2. Important Characteristics of the Effecti ve Clinical Teac her As shown in Figure 1 Omani nursing students perceived professional competence of clin ical teachers’ as the most important characteristic (77.6%), fo llowed by teachers’ relationship with students 72.9%. Only 53.2% rated personal attributes as highly important 4. Results Percentage Most Important Important Lessimportant 100 77.6% 80 72.9% Unimportant 53.2% 40.6% 60 20.6% 20.6 40 1.8% 6.5% 6.2% 20 0 Fi gure 1. Dist ribut ion of Three Cat egories of Effect ive Clinical Inst ructor Characterist ics 42 Girija K. M adhavanprabhakaran. et al.: Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Perception of Effective Clinical Instructor: Oman Table 2. Rank Order of Effective ClinicalTeacher Characteristic Perceived Important (>90%) by Nursing Students of Sultan Qaboos University Most Important (4) Important (3) Less Important (2) Effective Instructor Characteristic Professional Competence Evaluate students objectively and fairly Demonstrate role modeling Shows competence in clinical skill Able to relate theory to practice Shows genuine interest in patients and their care Provide positive feedback on student progress Facilit at es st udent ’s awareness of their professional responsibility Demonstrat es knowledge of nursing in the area of inst ruct ion Being available in the clinic Provides feedback in areas of improvement Provides individualized timely feedback Relationship with students Respects student as individuals Is approachable Is supportive & helpful. Permits freedom for discussion Is realistic in expectations of students performance Personal Attributes Demonstrat es good communicat ion skill Exhibits responsibility Responds confidently Able to collaborate with other disciplines Exhibits autonomy Demonstrates self-control & patience Is organized and well prepared % % % 90 10 0 80 18 2 75 22 3 75 20 5 72 23.0 5 75.4 18.6 6 74 20 6 73.4 20.6 6 72 22 6 70 22 8 69 22 9 75 25 0 73 20 7 70 23 7 71 22 7 70 21 9 65 35 0 56 40 4 55 40 5 55 38 7 52 40 8 50 41 9 50 41 9 It is evident from Table 2 that among the variables under professional co mpetence, majority (90%) of students identified “evaluating students objectively” as the most important characteristic of a clinical instructor. Students rated “clin ical instructor’s role modeling behavior” as the second most important characteristic (80%). A mong 18 professional co mpetency items, 11 items were rated as important characteristic (>90%). Providing freedom for discussion, approachable, being supportive and helpful in the clin ical settings was rated as the important characteristics (93%) under the category of relationship with students. Study results highlighted that all students wished to be respected as an individual by each clinical teacher. A ll participants valued good communication skills of clinical teachers as an important priority and the most important effective characteristics along with other 6 more ite ms (>90%) under the category of personal attributes. In section three of the questionnaire students were asked to prioritize the five most important effective characteristics of the clin ical instructors. Students perceived and rated fair evaluation, role modeling, skill co mpetence, communication skills and respecting students in the following rank order as shown in Table 3. Table 3. Rank Order of the Five Most Important Effective Clinical Instructor Characteristic Perceived by Nursing Students of Sultan Qaboos University 1 Evaluate students objectively and fairly 2 Demonstrate Role modeling status 3 Show clinical skill competence 4 Demonstrate good communication skills 5 Respect st udent as an individuals 4.3. Difference in Male and Female Students Percepti on The mean scores of the combined items of the three categories of clin ical instructor characteristics between male and female students in Table 4 revealed significant differences for category of relationships with students, which fe males rated higher than male students. Clinica l instructors’ “professional co mpetence and personal attributes were equally rated by both male and female students. International Journal of Nursing Science 2013, 3(2): 38-44 43 Table 4. Difference between Men and Women of Three Categories of ClinicalTeacher Characteristics Categories of ClinicalT eacher Ch aract erist ics Professional Competence Relationship with Students Personal Attributes * P-value <. 05 Gender N Male 36 Female 84 Male 36 Female 84 Male 36 Female 84 Mean 84.3 86.9 33.4 38.3 52.0 53.6 S. D t- Value Significance 6.75 7.53 1.72 7.43 4.11 2.81 7.26 6.32 1.75 0.89 0.034* 0.83 4.4. Perception of Students at Di fferent Academic Levels Differences of perception of students from d ifferent academic year showed no statistical differences, indicating that students at all academic levels values clin ical instructors’ professional co mpetency as the most important characteristic for an effective clin ical instructor 4.5. The Best Student – Teacher Rati o for Clinical Ins truct or The second open question authors explored was the students’ opinion on optimal ratio of students per teacher. Most (60 %) of students preferred having one teacher for 4 students. In student’s perspective a 4:1 ratio of studentteacher maximizes their clin ical learn ing compared to 5: 1 or higher ratios. 5. Discussion Findings of the study highlighted professional competencies of a clinical teacher as the most important characteristic. These find ings are consistent with previous studies, which revealed that a professional competence and expert knowledge were most important to nursing students[4, 5]. This study findings confirm results from studies conducted in other Arab countries like Jo rdan. The present study revealed that role modeling behavior of the clinical instructor as the most important characteristic under professional competencies and is in par with finding of Ibry. In addit ion, teaching and nursing care co mpetency were reported as the most important do mains of nurse educators. The findings of this study differed fro m Western studies where students rated interpersonal relationship as the most important domains[2, 10]. There were no differences in perception o f students fro m different academic year and they all agree to the same most important characteristics. This is not congruent with a similar study. Overall many researchers agree that the best clinical teachers are clinically co mpetent and know how to teach effectively along with a sound interpersonal skills and ability to provide feedback. Teacher’s knowledge about the curriculu m, clin ical setting, the learner and teaching/learning theory appeared very important to students’ views of effective clin ical teaching. Clin ical teachers with effective clinical teaching characteristics are always appreciated as good role models. Because baccalaureate nursing in Oman is at its initial phase of professionalization, a ‘‘professional approach in clin ical education” is the effect ive key to success. As this study is one of the pioneering of its kind, no evidence could be sort to explain the gender differences regarding relationships with students. Possibly the Oman i nursing students’ unique cultural background and educational beliefs, values and practices as they all belong to Islam and hailing fro m extended families with strong family t ies could have contributed to the significant variation of gender d ifferences in perceptions with regards to the category of instructors relationships with students. The same could be a factor for Omani nursing students’ preference to 4:1 student teacher ratio for clin ical teaching where more intense interaction and attention is ensured and is in contrast with higher student teacher ratio at international conte xt. These two aspects call for further exp loration and future studies. The results of the current study, by its nature, cannot be generalized to the international arena however; it demonstrated the core characteristic of an effect ive clinical teacher wh ich agrees with many studies carried out in Arab countries and other parts of the world. Li mitations: Since the Co llege of Nursing at Su ltan Qaboos University was the pioneering and is the only one public college established in 2002 with 60 student intake, the sample size was limited to 120. The newly developed instrument though it was developed observing all rigors of tool development, it needs further standardization in large scale sample. 6. Implications The results of this study will assist faculty to appreciate students’ views and acknowledge areas of success as well as areas needing improvement. Omani students’ cultural background and their educational beliefs, values and practices are unique to the students of the College of Nursing. As multicultural facult ies are involved in clin ical instruction, being aware of those characteristics that are perceived as important by nursing students, teaching strategies and attitudes may be reinforced, changed or developed in order to promote clinical instruction to the greatest extent. Clinical competencies of the instructors are of primary importance as they are considered as good role models for their students as well as their credibility as good teachers. Since this College and the University is fostering student centered curriculu m, the students’ feedback will definitely help to 44 Girija K. M adhavanprabhakaran. et al.: Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Perception of Effective Clinical Instructor: Oman mo ld clinical teaching by multicu ltural faculty to the students’ perspective. This study proposes the need to implement programs to foster and to pro mote uniformly identified effective clinical teaching characteristics which will foster Omani students’ clin ical learning. This research has implications for emp loyment and evaluation practices of clinical instructors. Given the special challenges of clin ical education, persons with effective clin ical instruction skills should be urged to enter clinical instruction. Academic ad ministrators can use the findings of the study to guide the faculty development process and provide useful educational tools to assist faculty in providing effective clin ical instruction. our colleagues. This was a non funded study and there is no conflict of interest. REFERENCES  Barnett C W and M atthews H W 2009 Teaching Evaluation Practices in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy American journal of pharmaceutical education 73  Lee W S, Cholowski K and Williams A K 2002 Nursing students' and clinical educators' perceptions of characteristics of effective clinical educators in an Australian university school of nursing J Adv Nurs 39 412-20 7. Conclusions Clin ical instructors need to model pro fessional behavior to facilitate optimal student learning. Clin ical teachers must possess effective teaching characteristics to enhance clinical learning. Nursing students value clinical instructors’ professional competencies as the most important characteristic. Oman i undergraduate nursing students rated “objective and fair evaluation”, “clin ical co mpetence,” “respecting students as an individual” and “commun icative skills” as the most important characteristics. Role modeling characteristics were highly valued by nursing students. The study results allows faculty to understand students’ views and provides opportunities for areas of success as well as areas needing improvement. Academic ad ministrators can optimally o rient new clin ical faculty to effective clinical teaching behaviors as perceived important by students and can use the findings to guide the faculty development process. As clinical teachers become aware of those characteristics that are perceived important, teaching strategies and attitudes can be reinforced, modified, or developed in order to pro mote clin ical learning as valuable experience for students. Application of the results in devising clinical educational models and as indicators for educators’ role can make the results mo re tangible. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Authors acknowledge the experts who validated the tool, Dr. Anice George, Dr. Clara Jothy, Mr. Ramesh V, Mrs. Preethy D, and Mrs. Nileema B and M rs. Alice. A. We are thankful to all students who willing ly participated in the study, without their wholehearted input this study could not have been possible. 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