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Evaluation of body weight, body mass index and waist hip ratio of female students at the Federal Institute of technology in akanuibian, afikpo, ebony, Nigeria

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Brain and Cognitive Sciences 2017, 6(4): 65-70 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijbcs.20170604.01 Assessment of Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Waist-hip Ratio on Academic Performance of Female Students in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Suleiman Joseph Bagi1, Eze Ejike Daniel2,*, Karimah Mohammed Rabiu3, Iliya Ezekiel4 1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Nigeria 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda 3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria 4Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria Abstract Most parents and teachers unscientifically believe that the overweight persons are sluggish, lazy and sleepy therefore would not do well in academic performance. This study investigated the association of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-hip ratio (WHR) on academic performance of some few selected students of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana Afikpo Ebonyi State, Nigeria. BMI, WHR were calculated and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) scores were used to collect data from 300 female students from six different Departments (50 students each Department). NDII and HNDII students were considered for this research. Their age range was between 19-28 years. Descriptive Body Mass Index analysis found 20 students underweight, 246 students with normal weights, 25 students were overweight, and 16 students were obesed while on academic performance, 31 students had distinction, 87 students had upper credit, 152 had lower credit and 50 students had pass. Descriptive waist-hip ratio analysis found 32 students underweight, 174 students had normal weights, 74 students were overweight and 20 were found to be obesed, while on academic performance, 1 student had distinction, 86 students had upper credit, 156 students had lower credit and 37 students were on pass category respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed no statistically significant (P > 0.05) differences in body mass index, waist-hip ratio and C.G.P.A. There was no significant association between body mass index, waist-hip ratio and academic performance. Body mass index (f= .579 r = 0.34 R2=0.31 t= .283. p=69>.05), waist hip ratio on academic performance (f=.182 r=.007, R2 = .004 t=.477, p=.141> 7.05) was observed. Therefore no basis to judge a student generally by body mass profile rather conducive learning environment, genetic and mental endowments would continue to influence academic performance of a student. Keywords Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, Cumulative Grade Point Average, Obesity, Underweight 1. Introduction The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual [1]. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of Kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in meters [2, 3]. The BMI is an attempt to quantify the amount of tissue mass (muscle, fat and bone) in an individual, and then categorized that person as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese based on that value. However, there are some debates about the BMI scal, therefore the * Corresponding author: daniel.ejike@kiu.ac.ug (Eze Ejike Daniel, PhD) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved dividing lines between categories should be placed. Epel et al. [4] commonly accepted BMI ranges are under weight under 18.5 kg/m2, normal weight 18.5 to 25 kg/m2, overweight 25 to 30 kg/m2, obese over thirty 30 kg/m2. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) is a measurement that compares the size of your waist in inches and the size of your hips in inches. The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure in health and risk of developing serious health conditions. Research shows that people with apple-shaped bodies (with more weight around the waist) face more health risks and because of this it affects the academic performance of that person. WHR is used as measurement of obesity, which in turn is a possible indicator of other core serious health conditions. The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.85 for female or a body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 [5, 6]. A sedentary life-style plays a significance role in obesity 66 Suleiman Joseph Bagi et al.: Assessment of Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Waist-hip Ratio on Academic Performance of Female Students in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria [7]. Worldwide there is a large shift towards less physically demanding work both in the school (Ness-Abram and Aprovian, 2006), and currently at least 30% of the world’s population gets insufficient exercise; hence, it affects the young women in their academic performance [9, 10]. It is primarily due to increasing use of mechanized transportation and a greater prevalence of labour-saving technology in the school [11, 12]. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that is it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person’s weight by the square of the person’s height, over 30kg/m2, with the range 25-30kg/m2 is defined as overweight [13]. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes obstructive sleep apnea. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility [14]. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or mental illness [15]. Evidence to support the view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported [16]. On average, obese people have greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass [17]. Obesity is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices changes diet and exercising are the main treatments [18]. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars and by increasing intake of dietary fiber. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Obesity is more common in women. The present investigation was aimed at assessing the body weight, body mass index and waist-hip ratio on academic performance of female students in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Materials 2.1.1. Equipment Used /Model Inelastic measuring tape (Butterfly model made in china), graduated in centimeter (0-150) was used to measure the waist and hip circumferences Height meter: A vertical wooden bar calibrated in centimeters (0-20) with a movable horizontal bar which could be adjusted to touch the vertex of the participants head was used to measure the height of the participants. A portable mechanical bathroom weight scale (module: BR) calibrated from 0-120kg was used to measure body weight to the nearest kilogram. 2.2. Methods 2.2.1. Experimental Design Participants for this study were drawn from a purposive sample of 300 students from six different Departments of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana Afikpo Ebonyi State Nigeria, they include Office Technology Management (OTM), Science Laboratory Technology (SLT), Business Administration Management (BAM), Food Technology Management, Public Administration (PAD), Marketing Department, Hospitality Management and Tourism (HMT) and Accountancy Department. Fifty (50) female students with ages 19-28 years from each Department were selected for the study. Female students of NDII and HNDII students were recruited only and they were all Nigerians. A consent form was given to each student. The weighing scale (mechanical bathroom scale) was used for the measurement of the body weight of each student, while inelastic tape measure was used to measure the waist and hip circumferences and height meter was used to measure the height of the participants. The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) for each student was collected from the different selected Departments of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo result template. The template converts every examination score entered into CGPA. 2.2.2. Data Collection Table 1. Standard Body Mass Index 16.00-18.49 18.50-25.0 25.01-29.99 30.00-above Under weight Normal weight Over weight Obese Table 2. Standard wait-hip ratio 0.60-0.75 0.76-0.80 081-0.85 0.80-above Under weight Normal weight Over weight Obese Table 3. Standard Cumulative Grade Point Aggregate (CGPA) from Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo Result Template 3.50-4.00 3.00-3.49 2.50-2.99 1.75-2.49 Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Prior to the commencement of the study, ethical approval was obtained from Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo. The rationale behind the study, including the procedure were taken after removal of shoes, height was also measured without shoes in the standing position with the shoulders in relaxed position and arms hanging freely, and the two measures were used to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI). The waist circumference was measured with a tape measure to within 1 (one) millimeter (WHO, 1998). Hip circumference was measured with the participant standing erect, feet together and on a horizontal plan at the level of the International Journal of Brain and Cognitive Sciences 2017, 6(4): 65-70 67 greater trochanters. The waist–hip ratio was calculated by dividing the waist circumference by the hip circumference. The data collected were arranged in line with WHO (1998) body mass classification chant and waist-hip ratio, while the student academic performance as represented by CGPA were ranked according to Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic result template. 2.3. Statistical Analysis The mean and standard deviation were calculated for all parameters while the percentages for all treatment were also calculated. Analyses of variance were summed up using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the significance level was set at p <0.05. Table 4. Body Mass Index of Students of Some Selected Departments in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebony State Department Office Tech & Management (OTM) Science Laboratory Tech (SLT) Food Science Tech (FST) Business Admin Management (BAM) Public Administration (PAD) Marketing Academic classification Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Under weight 0 0 1 0 1 22% 2 0 2 0 4 8% 0 0 1 0 0 2% 0 3 3 1 7 14% 0 1 2 0 3 6% 0 1 1 0 2 4% Normal weight 5 6 18 12 41 82% 4 6 20 8 38 76% 3 8 29 3 3 86% 3 8 25 2 38 76% 2 0 15 3 20 40% 3 26 17 0 46 92% Over weight 0 0 3 0 3 6% 0 1 4 2 1 8% 0 0 3 3 3 12% 0 1 1 0 2 4% 2 4 9 9 24 48% 1 1 0 0 2 4% Obese Total 0 5 0 6 3 25 2 14 5 50 10% 100% 0 6 0 7 1 27 0 10 7 51 8% 100% 0 3 0 8 0 33 0 6 0 6 0% 100% 0 3 0 12 2 31 1 4 3 50 6% 100% 0 4 1 6 2 28 0 12 3 50 6% 100% 0 4 0 28 0 18 0 0 0 50 0% 100% 68 Suleiman Joseph Bagi et al.: Assessment of Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Waist-hip Ratio on Academic Performance of Female Students in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 3. Results From the results obtained, table 4 showed that, out of 50 students sampled in OTM Department (2%) were in the mild weight class, 41 students (82%) were in the normal weight class, 3 students (6%) were overweight, 5 students (10%) were in the obese class (Table 4). In SLT Department, (10%) were in the under weight class, 38 students (7%) were in normal weight class, 7 students (14%) were in over weight class and 1 student (2%) was mildly obese. In FST, (2%) were in underweight class, 43 students were in normal weight class, none was overweight. In BAM Department, 1 student (2%) was mildly under weight, 38 students (76%) were in normal weight class, 5 students (10%) were in over weight class, 2 students (4%) were in Obese weight class while in the Department of Public Administration, 3 student (6%) were mildly under weight, 20 (40%) were in normal weight class, 24 students (48%) were in over weight class, 3 students (6%) were in Obese weight class. In Marketing Department, 2 students (4%) were underweight, 46 students (92%) were in normal weight class, 2 students were in overweight class and none was obese (Table 5). In the overall, Body Mass Index, 246 students (82%) were in normal weight class, 25 students (8.3%) were mildly over weight and 9 students (3%) were obesed (Table 5). Results on (Table 6) revealed that in OTM Department, 6 students (12%) were in underweight 26 students were in normal weight class, 11 students (22%) were overweight, 7 students (14%) were under weight and 5 students (10%) were obese. In SLT Department, 6 students (12%) were under weight, 32 students (64%) normal weight, 11 students (22%) was overweight, 1 student (2%) was obese. In FST Department, 3 students (6%) were under weight, 20 students (40%) were in normal weight 26 students (52%) was overweight, 1 student (2%) was obese. In BAM Department, 3 students (6%) were in the under weight class, 20 students (40%) were in normal weight class, 24 students (48%) were overweight, 3 students (6%) were obese. In Marketing Department, (66%) was overweight, 2 students (4%) was obesed. In over all Departments, out of 300 students, 32 students (10.7%) was overweight, 174 (58%) were in normal weight, 74 student (24.7%) were mildly over weight, 20 students (16.6%) were obese (Table 7). The results also showed that there were significant differences in the body mass index and waist-hip ratio of the students; it also showed significant difference in the academic performance of the students. Finally, additional test was conducted to see if BMI and waist Hip ratio could predict CGPA. The result showed no significant prediction effect of BMI on CGP (f= .579 r = 0.34 R2=0.31 t= .283. p.69>.05), and the result also showed no significant prediction effect on waist–hip ratio on CGPA (f=.182 r=.007, R2 = .004 t=.477, p=.141> 7.05). Table 5. Cross Tabulation of Body Mass Index and Academic Performance of Some Students in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebony State Body Mass Index Academic under normal over obese total Classification Weight weight weight Distinction 2 28 1 0 31 Upper credit 5 78 4 0 87 Lower 11 121 14 6 1.52 Pass 2 19 6 3 30 Total 20 246 25 9 300 Table 6. Waist-hip ratio of Students of Some Selected Departments in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebony State Department Office Tech & Management (OTM) Science Laboratory Tech (SLT) Food Science Tech (FST) Academic classification Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Under weight 0 3 3 0 6 12% 1 3 1 1 6 12% 0 0 3 0 3 6% Normal weight 3 3 16 4 26 52% 3 15 12 2 32 64% 1 9 8 2 20 40% Over weight 0 1 8 2 11 22% 1 7 2 1 11 22% 2 5 16 3 26 52% Obese 1 1 3 2 7 14% 0 0 1 0 1 2% 0 0 1 0 1 2% Total 4 8 30 8 50 100% 5 25 16 4 50 100% 3 14 28 5 50 100% International Journal of Brain and Cognitive Sciences 2017, 6(4): 65-70 69 Department Business Admin Management (BAM) Public Administration (PAD) Marketing Academic classification Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Distinction Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Percentage Under weight 0 1 2 0 3 6% 0 0 6 1 7 14% 0 5 2 0 7 6% Normal weight 2 0 15 3 20 40% 1 5 17 6 29 58% 2 16 15 0 33 40% Over weight 2 4 9 9 24 48% 1 0 8 0 9 18% 1 4 3 0 8 48% Obese 0 1 2 0 3 6% 0 2 3 0 5 10% 0 1 1 0 2 6% Total 4 6 28 12 50 100% 2 7 34 7 50 100% 3 26 21 0 50 100% Table 7. Cross Tabulation of Waist hip ratio (WHR) and Academic Performance of Students of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebony State Academic classification Distribution Upper credit Lower credit Pass Total Under weight 1 12 17 2 32 Normal weight 12 48 97 17 174 Over weight 7 21 31 15 74 Obese 1 5 11 3 20 Total 21 86 156 37 300 4. Discussion The study was conducted on 300 regular female students of six different Departments which included: Office Technology Management (OTM), Science Laboratory Technology (SLT), Food Science Technology (FST), Business Administration Management (BAM), and Marketing Department of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebony State, in which 50 students each from selected departments participated. There are no comparative studies in the past years in other department to compare and contrast body mass index and waist-hip profile findings obtained. Similar studies elsewhere outside Nigeria cannot be used since they are not homogenous to our subjects. There is no known comparative study from other Departments in Nigerian Polytechnics. Although females have been shown to possess more body fat, however, body mass index and waist hip ratio do not determine body fat percentage, but it places individual in the body mass index and waist-hip ratio chart as to the degree of fatness, over fatness, thinners and extreme thinners. Some females have increased BMI and waist-hip ratio as from 12 years as they get into the pubertal age. The important point noted in the study is that the BMI of students of OTM Department recorded the highest obesed students (5) 10%, BAM Department recorded 3 (6%) obesed students, while PAD recorded 2 (4%) obesed students. All the departments had few over weight students and many normal students in all Departments especially Marketing Department; and this may be due to the less academic stress experienced by students of this Department. Also all the Departments recorded less underweight students who may need nutritional and body building exercise programme. This is in line with the procedure for beating up weight as provided by [19]. In waist-hip ratio all the Departments have less obese students with more over weight students, while few of the students were moderately underweight in all the Departments studied. The findings of this study on effect of body mass index and waist hip ratio on academic performance were in conflict with the report of [20] whose findings showed that increased weight lowers test scores, though only for girls. However, it supports the findings of [21, 11] who found no significant differences on the effect of BMI on academic performance or productivity of workers. In conclusion, there was no strong association between basal metabolic index (BMI) and academic performance. Similarly, there was also no association between waist hip ratio and academic performance of students of some selected Departments in Akanu Ibiam Federal polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Therefore, there is no basis to judge a student generally by body mass profile rather conductive learning environment (Science and technology) and genetic (typology) and mental endowments would continue to influence academic performance of a student. 70 Suleiman Joseph Bagi et al.: Assessment of Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Waist-hip Ratio on Academic Performance of Female Students in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 5. Recommendations 1. All Departments should include regular fitness exercises like jogging, gym work-out and aerobic training monthly or bi monthly programme as part of their extra-curricular activities. 2. Underweight students need to be counselled on how to improve their weight so as to avoid dropping down to severe underweight. REFERENCES [1] Cameron, A.J., Welborn, T.A. and Zimmet, P. (2003). Overweight and obesity in Australia: The 1999-2000. Australian Diabetes, Obesity and lifestyle study. Medical journal of Australia, 178:427-432. [2] Chiolero, A., Fach, D., Paccaud, F. and Cornez, J. (2008). “Consequences of smoking for body weight fat distribution and insulion resistance “AM.J, Xlin Nuri (Review), 87 (4): 801-9. [3] Depress, J.P., Lemieux, I. and Prud’ Homme, D. (2001). Treatment of obesity, need to focus on high risk abdominally obese patients British medical journal 323:716-720. [4] Epel, E.S., MCEwen, B., Seeman, T:, Mathews, K, Castellazzo, G. and Brownell, K.D (2007) “Stree and Body shap, stree-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat”. Psychosomatic medicine, 62 (5): 623-632. [5] Gray, D.S. and Fujioka, K, (1991). 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