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Physical and mechanical properties of palica wood treated with CCB preservative

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of M aterials Engineering 2013, 3(4): 82-86 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijme.20130304.03 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Paricá Wood Species Treated with CCB Preservative Felipe H. Icimoto1, Fabiane S. Ferro1, Luciano D. Varanda1, Amós M. de Souza1, Diego H. de Almeida2, André L. Christoforo3,*, Francisco A. Rocco Lahr2 1Department of Science and Engineering M aterials, Engineering School of São Carlos (EESC/U SP), São Carlos, 13566-590, Brazil 2Department of Structural Engineering, Engineering School of São Carlos (EESC/USP), São Carlos, 13566-590, Brazil 3Department of M echanical Engineering, Federal University of São João del-Rei, São João del-Rei, 36307-352, Brazil Abstract Wood of Paricá species (Schizolobium amazonicum) is highly susceptible to degradation by decay microorganis ms. Due to its increasing production in the northern region of Brazil, about 85 thousand hectares, and later use both for structural purposes and for the furniture industry, the need of extending life of Paricá wood applying chemical preservatives arises. One current alternative is the treatment by autoclave using CCB (Copper Chro me Boron). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of treatment with CCB in the properties: apparent density, paralle l and perpendicular hardness to the grain, strength to shear and in the co mpression parallel to the grain of the Schizolobium amazonicum wood species, comparing the results with untreated wood. We observed that treatment with CCB did not change the properties of apparent density, shear strength, perpendicular hardness, strength and stiffness in co mpression parallel to the grain. For the hardness strength parallel to the grain was decreased in 28.9%. Keywords Paricá, Treated Wood, CCB, Physical and Mechanical Properties 1. Introduction The growth of world demand for timber imp lies the search for new species of fast growth and silvicu ltural potential in this scenario, native species, generally, are advantageous in adaptability[1]. In 1948, through Forest Service State of São Paulo, were introduced to test the American species known in the sources as "yellow pine" which include P. palustris, P. echinata, P. elliottii and P. taeda. Among these, the last two highlighted for ease cultivation, rapid growth and intense reproduction in the South and Southeast of Brazil. Since then, a large number of species continued to be introduced and established in field e xperiments by government agencies and private enterprises, aiming commercial plantations[2]. According to ABRAF- Brazilian Association of Planted Forest Producers[3], in 2010, the area occupied by forest plantations of Eucalyptus and Pinus in Brazil totaled 6,510,693 ha, which 73% corresponding to the area of Eucalyptus and 27% to Pinus. In Brazil, a native species that is attract ing increas ing interest in timber co mpanies and producers, main ly due to its rapid gro wth, is Schizolobium amazonicum, also known as * Corresponding author: alchristoforo@yahoo.com.br (André L. Christoforo) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved Paricá. Belonging to the Legu minosae family, it is native fro m Bolivia, Colo mb ia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico and Peru[4]. In Brazil, the species has a wide geographical distribution, being found not only in the South Region. According to ABRAF- Brazilian Association of Planted Forest Producers[3], the total area p lanted with Paricá only in the states of Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins in 2011 was approximately 85ha. Paricá wood is very used to manufacture veneers for plywood, pulp and products of the construction market, as ceilings, doors, panels, decorative veneer, fu rniture, fixtures and structures[5-8]. According to Souza[9], Paricá is a species that has low natural durability, being susceptible to fungus, termites, wood decay and insects. Therefore, a preservative treat ment is necessary to prolong the life of such timber. Main treat ments for wood preservatives used in Bra zil are the CCA (chro mated copper arsenate) and CCB (chro mated copper borate)[10]. CCA is the most commonly used water soluble preservative worldwide. It is usually emp loyed containing about 19% copper o xide[11]. CCA is widely used in the treat ment of wood that remain in contact with the ground being very effective to protect wood against insects (termites and borers), decay fungi and marine borers. However, environ mental concerns about the use of preservatives have been raised due to the dispersion of copper and arsenic into the environment before the complete fixation of the active ingredients with the possibility of International Journal of M aterials Engineering 2013, 3(4): 82-86 83 contamination of soil and groundwater[10-12]. CCB preservative is an alternative product to CCA, with the difference using of the boron element instead arsenic. Its use has advantages such as low cost compared to newer products launched in the market; reduced leaching of copper and chromiu m, is environmentally friendly, does not increase the electrical conductivity of wood, is non-corrosive to metals such as carbon steel and alu minu m[11]. According to Pinheiro[13], chemical wood preservation is extremely important, as well as being proven and effective against bio deterioration. In some cases, can increase the values of the mechanical properties of wood. In this regard, Rocco Lahr et al.[14] studied the influence of preservation with CCB in hardness of wood (paralle l and perpendicular to the grain) fro m p lanted forests, Pinus elliottii, obtaining gains in the properties investigated. Given the potential for reforestation in the country and the growing plantation of Paricá wood in Brazil, studies involving the preservative treatment presenting relevant, can alter the physical and mechanica l characteristics of the wood in question. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of treatment with CCB in the properties: apparent density, parallel and perpendicular hardness to the grain, shear strength, strength and stiffness of parallel co mpression to the grain of the Paricá wood species. was 9.6 kg of active ingredient (m³). Figure 1. Universal machine of mechanical test, Amsler 2. Material and Methods Schizolobium amazonicum or Paricá wood came fro m seven-year-old plantation, in Parago minas City, state of Pará. For this study were rando mly selected fro m the same lot: - 12 Paricá CCB treated beams, no minal d imensions 3,5cm × 10cm × 100cm; - 12 untreated beams, nominal dimensions 3,5cm × 10cm × 100cm. Fro m each beam was removed one specimen for each one of the tests, thus obtaining: 24 specimens for hardness perpendicular and parallel to the grain, 24 specimens for shear test and 24 specimens for co mpression parallel to the grain. As the beams used had a limit in thickness of 3.5 c m, it became necessary to fit the specimens’ dimensions for each test. For apparent density testing entire board was used. The methodology used in the tests to determine the physical and mechanical properties fo llo wed the ABNT NBR7190[15] ANNEX B - Projects of wooden structures, the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, recommendation. All beams were kept in a controlled environ ment, thereby maintaining 12% mo isture content. Amsler un iversal testing mach ine with a capacity of 25 tons was used to carry out mechanica l tests, as shown in Figure 1. 2.1. Preservati ve Treatment The CCB treat ment applied on wood through pressure in autoclave was conducted by the company PREMA SA, located in the city of Rio Claro / SP. The t reatment retention 2.2. Apparent Density The specimen dimensions for this test were: 35 mm th ick × 100 mm wide × 600 mm h igh. Figure 2 shows the apparent density specimen. . Figure 2. Apparent density specimen 2.3. Shear Test In this test the shear occurs in the direction parallel to the grain. The standard specimen dimensions for this test were: 35 mm thickness × 100 mm width × 60 mm height; with area dimensions of 35 mm × 50 mm to be sheared. Figure 3 shows the shear specimen. 84 Felipe H. Icimoto et al.: Physical and M echanical Properties of Paricá Wood Species Treated with CCB Preservative (a) (a) (b) Figure 3. Shear test. (a) Treated wood; (b) untreated wood 2.4. Hardness Parallel and Perpendicular to the Grain This test was realized on all specimens’ faces, resulting in strength values in parallel and perpendicular directions to the grain. The standard specimen dimensions for this test were: 35 mm thick × 100 mm wide × 100 mm high. Figure 4 shows the hardness specimen. (a) (b) Figure 5. Compression parallel to the grain test. (a) Treated wood; (b) Untreated wood 2.6. Statistical Analysis The analysis of variance (ANOVA ) was used to investigate the influence of the treatment in the properties investigated. The significance level (α) was 5%, considering the null hypothesis (H0) the equivalence between the means and the non-equivalence as the alternative hypothesis (H1). P-value g reater than the significance level involves accepting H0, rejecting it otherwise. To validate the ANOVA model, Anderson-Darling and the Bartlett´s tests were used to verify the normality of the distribution and the ho mogeneity between variances, respectively, both at the 5% level of significance, considering the null hypotheses as the normality and of the distribution and the equivalence between variances. The null hypothesis is accepted if the P-value obtained in the tests is higher than the significance level, rejecting them otherwise. When significance of the factor was detected by ANOVA, Tukey test for g rouping of the averages was employed. 3. Results (b) Fi gure 4. Hardness t est . (a) Treated wood; (b) Untreat ed wood 2.5. Compression Parallel to the Grain The specimen dimensions for compression parallel to the grain testing[16-22] were: 35 mm thick × 100 mm wide × 150 mm high. Figure 5 shows the compression parallel to the grain specimen. The region measurement to be compressed was performed using deflectometer installed in the center of the specimen. Apparent density The Table 1 shows the results for apparent density tests. xm is the average values, Sd is the standard deviations and Cv is the coefficient of variat ion. Table 1. Apparent density results wood Paricá treated and untreated Specimens (n) xm (kg/m³) Sd Cv(%) Apparent density (ρap) Untreated Tre ate d 6 9 383,04 407,49 19,28 33,10 5 8 International Journal of M aterials Engineering 2013, 3(4): 82-86 85 The values obtained for apparent density; with 12 % mo isture content for untreated and treated wood were respectively 383.04 kg/ m³ and 407.49 kg/m³. A NOVA shows that the average for wood Paricá untreated and treated density test are not statistically different fro m each other (P-va lue>0,05). Thus, it can be assumed that the treatment did not change the Paricá density, differently of the results obtained from the research of Rocco Lahr et al.[14], this had an increase in apparent density by 27% in the treated wood co mparing to wood “in nature”. Shear Table 2 presents the shear tests results. Table 2. Results of shear strength in the direction parallel to the grain treated and untreated Paricá Specimens (n) xm (MPa) Sd Cv(%) Shear strenght (fv0) Untreated Tre ate d 8 10 7,66 7,61 0,78 0,55 10 7 ANOVA revealed that the average values of the shear test parallel to the grain of Paricá with treat ment and without treatment are not statistically different fro m each other (P-value>0,05). Thus, it can be assumed that the treatment did not change the property of shear strength of Paricá wood s p ecie. Pinheiro[13] obtained, for the Pinus sp. Treated with CCB, shear strength values of 10% greater than the shear strength fro m the Pinus sp wood species untreated. Hardness Parallel and Perpendicul ar to the Grai n Table 3 p resents the results for hardness tests. Averages values with different letters are statistically d ifferent fro m each other, at a 5% level o f significance. Table 3. Results of hardness in perpendicular and parallel direction to the grain of the treated and untreated Paricá wood specie the grain (P-vale>0,05), this did not occur with the hardness in parallel direct ion to the grain of Paricá wood specie, present P-value less than the significance level set, showing a decrease of 28.9% for the wood treated. This fact is probably due to the occurrence of surface cracking in the treatment process under pressure. Rocco Lahr et al.[14] obtained increases of 58% to 68% in hardness parallel and hardness perpendicular to the grain of Pinus elliotii wood specie. Compression Parallel to the Grain Table 3 presents the results for co mpression tests in parallel d irection to the grain. Table 4. Strength and stiffness in compression parallel to the grain for the wood treated and untreated Compression parallel to the grain Strength (fc0) Untreated Tre ate d Specimens (n) 8 5 xm (MPa) 31,08 33,75 Sd 2,33 1,61 Cv(%) 8 5 Stiffness (Ec0) Untreated Tre ate d Specimens (n) 8 9 xm (MPa) 866 772 Sd 80 118 Cv(%) 9 14 The strength and stiffness in compression paralle l to grain of Paricá wood treated and untreated showed statistical equivalence between means (P-value>0,05). Thus, it can be assumed that the treatment did not change the strength and stiffness in co mpression parallel to grain of Paricá. Pinheiro[13] reached increments of 17% in co mpressive strength parallel to grain of Pinus sp. treated with CCA, and average gain of 55% for the wood treated with CCB. Specimens (n) xm (MPa) Sd Cv(%) Specimens (n) xm (MPa) Sd Cv(%) Hardness(fh) Pe rpendicular to the grain (fh90) Untreated Tre ate d 9 8 15,83 13,66 2,45 2,50 15 18 Parallel to the grain (fh0) Untreated Tre ate d 7 9 27,55 A* 19,60 B* 4,22 2,72 15 14 By ANOVA, it can be assumed that treatment with CCB did not change the hardness in the perpendicular direction to 4. Conclusions In view of what is pointed out in the foregoing, we conclude that the impregnation of CCB in the Schizolobium amazonicum wood specie did not changed the properties apparent density, shear strength, hardness, strength and stiffness in comp ression parallel to the grain. The hardness strength parallel to grain was decreased by 28.9%, this fact is probably due to the occurrence of surface cracking in the treat ment process under pressure. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors express their gratitude to CNPq for granting scholarships, Department of Science and Engineering of Materials, Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory, 86 Felipe H. Icimoto et al.: Physical and M echanical Properties of Paricá Wood Species Treated with CCB Preservative Structural Eng ineering Depart ment and USP São Carlos, that enabled the development of this research. Also we would like to acknowledge PREMA Technology and Trade Co mpany SA for the treat ment with CCB used in the experimental part of th is research. [11] M oreschi, J. C. 2011. Produtos preservantes de madeira. (online) . Consulted: 23 fev. 2012. [12] Silva, J. C. M adeira preservada e seus conceitos. Revista da M adeira, 2007. REFERENCES [1] Vidaurre G. P. Caracterização anatômica, química e físico-mecânica da madeira de Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) para produção de energia e polpa celulósica. Tese (Doutorado). Universidade Federal de Viçosa, M inas Gerais. 89p, 2010. [2] Calil Neto, C. 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