Study on strength degradation of GFRP laminates under environmental influence
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Composite M aterials 2012, 2(4): 48-52 DOI: 10.5923/j.cmaterials.20120204.02 An Investigation on Strength Degradation of Gfrp Laminates Under Environmental Impact P. Sampath Rao1, M. Manzoor Husain2, D. V. Ravi Shankar3 1Research scholar JNT University Hyderabad. M echanical Engineering Department Vijay Rural Eng. College, Nizamabad A.P.India 2M echanical Engineering Department JNT University Hyderabad. A.P.India 3Nizam Institute of Engineerin g and Techno lo gy, Hy derabad. A.P. India Abstract The usage and replacement of conventional materials with polymer co mposite materials for engineering applications is always questioned by the end user, unless otherwise supported by the authentic published research. The reinforcement materials are highly hygroscopic; the matrix material provides protection to the reinforcement. Since the edges of composite components and surface are exposed to environment, water mo lecules travel along the reinforcement, which can damage the interfacial bonding, further the performance of the composite laminate may get affected. In this scenario the investigation related to this aspect, requires quantitative assessment which is carried out to estimate the damage associated by accelerated simu lation of the real time situation provides information to ext rapolate the effects of the mo isture associated damage to the composite laminate. In this present work an attempt has been made in establishing the investigation procedure to estimate the influence of mo isture absorption on strength degradation coupled with temperature. To estimate the life cycle time of poly mer co mposite components such as marine boats and components related to submarine applicat ions. Fro m the test results, it is established reduced that the tensile strength and flexural modulus were reduced significantly, of the specimens subjected to water soaking and varying temperature. Keywords Glass Fibre Reinforced Poly mer Co mposite (GFRP), Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), Tensile and Bending Test 1. Introduction Glass fibre reinforced plastic materials are of lo w cost, light in weight, have good mechanical properties thus having potential to use the m for structural applications such as equipment for chemical plants and pipelines which are subjected to aggressive environment. Therefore, the informat ion comprising the effects of moisture absorption at higher temperatures on the mechanical properties of g lass reinforced co mposites is very essential. Glass fibre reinforced po ly mer co mposites (GFRP) show relatively low degradation in various corrosive environments in the unstressed state, however, they are very susceptible to stress corrosion, especially in d ilute mineral acid environment[1,2]. Krystyna Imielinska discussed in detail about the environmental stress cracking characteristics of GFRP and (A-G) FRP which were studied using CT (fracture mechanics) samples under. Constant tensile load and water environ ment. For GFRP the characteristics of crack length as a function exposure * Corresponding author: sampathrao_polusani@y ahoo.co.in (P. Sampath Rao) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved time (upto3 months).Ductile aramid fibres seemed to protect the glass fibre rein forcement fro m stress cracking due to higher chemical resistance and complex failure mechanis ms.Accelerated environ mental ageing study of polyester/glass fibre reinforced co mposites (GFRPCs) were studied based on two kinds of alternating cycles, which provided humid ity, temperature and u ltraviolet radiat ion The study dynamic mechanical analysis, for a range of temperatures and frequencies under tensile and three-point bending loadings, revealed that the aged materials gained in stiffness, whereas a s mall deteriorat ion in strength was found Tensile and flexu ral strength of bamboo fibre reinforced polypropylene co mposite and bamboo-glass fibre reinforced polypropylene hybrid co mposite were reduced. On similar way experimental work has been done with polyester-glass fibre reinforced co mposites. The environmental stress cracking failure due to temperature and mo isture has been studied for g lass fibre reinfo rced composites. Moisture does not only affect the adhesive bond of the bonded system in service, but also during the application of FRP on concrete surface. Tests on CFRP bonded to concrete with init ially damp surface using a modified cantilever beam indicated reduction in bond strength when compared to specimens with initially dry concrete surface. Since the failu re under effect of mo isture generally occurs by either concrete delaminating 49 International Journal of Composite M aterials 2012, 2(4): 48-52 or concrete–epoxy interface separation. The effects of variable mo isture conditions on the fracture toughness of concrete/FRP bonded system are studied by means of the peel and shear fracture toughness determined fro m the conditioned test specimens. Moisture conditions can result in strength degradation.The main object ive of this work is to investigate the effects of hydro aging and hydrothermal aging environmental (constant temperature water bath) conditions on the performance and durability of glass fibre reinforced poly mer. 220mm, W idth b=30 mm, Depth or Thickness d=8 mm 2 Experimental Setup 2.1. Preparati on of Test Samples The specimens for the present work are prepared using RTM Machine. The specifications for the laminate preparation are (i) in jection pressures, 30-40 psi. (ii) Curing Temperature – room temperature. The laminates obtained by RTM is the size 300mm x 300mm x 8mm.These laminates are sliced to standard ASTMD 638 tensile specimens of d imensions 250 mm x 30 mm x 8 mm (as shown fig.1). These Specimens are immersed in the water bath at room temperature for a period of 180days and other set of specimens immersed inconstant temperature water bath which is maintained at 600Cfor a period of 60days (as shown fig.2&3). Specifications of materi als used in the composite lami nate: Matrix: Genera l purpose polyester resin (commerc ial Grade) Glass fibre: Saint Gobain makes E- Glas s Chopped strand mat (stitched) 450g/s-m, the laminates are prepared with RTM process . The volume fract ion of the reinforcement loading about 40% which is found by Burn test the remaining is matrix About 60% Figure 2. Specimens in water bath at room temperature Figure 3. Constant temperature water bath maintained at600C Figure 4. Constant temperature water bath with specimens Fi gure 1. pieces of laminat e produced Specimen size: Specimen Length=250 mm Specimen Gauge Length for tensile test 200mm and bending test 2.2. Experi mentation The present work is focused to understand influence of the water soaking time which leads to reduce GFRP composite laminate’s tensile strength. The experiments were carried out on number of specimens moulded by P. Sampath Rao et al.: An Investigation on Strength Degradation of Gfrp Laminates Under Environmental Impact 50 RTM and exposed to water bath which is maintained at room temperature and constant temperature at 600C. Every 30 days specimens are taken fro m bath which are exposed to roo m temperature and fo r every10 days specimens are taken fro m bath which is maintained at 600 C temperature, and carried out tensile tests, 3-point bending tests to determine the young’s and flexural modulus which are exposed to various periods. d = Depth of tested beam, (mm) The specimen exposed at room temperature for 180days flexu ral modulus is calculated as Ef1=L3*M/4bd3 Ef1=2203*0.0333*103/4*30*83 =5.7764Gpa Figure 6. Three point bending testing on UTM rious Figure 5. Tensile testing on UTM 3. Results-Tensile and Flexural Modulus The laminates are exposed to water bath at roo m temperature, and are tested with tensile and 3-point bending test. This is repeated for every 30 days , the results are noted and the same d isplayed in g raphs 1&3 .The laminates are exposed at constant temperature 600C, tested with tensile and 3-po int bending test. This is repeated for every 10 days, and plotted graphs2&4 with the obtained results. Fro m stress-strain graphs tensile young’s modulus of the specimens are calculated with in the elastic limits choosing three points in a straight line portion and shown in graphs5and6. The specimen exposed for 600C fo r 10days tensile modulus is calcu lated as Young’s Modulus (10 Days), E1 = (8/0.7+10/0.9+10.5/1)/3*100 N/mm2 =1.101Gpa Flexu ral modulus of elasticity is calculated with graphs 3 and 4 for specimens exposed at room temperature and constant temperature 600 C with defferent exposure times by using following equation and the results are shown in graphs5and 6. Graph 1. Tensile test-specimens exposed to room temperature (stress V/S Strain at various exposed time 30 to180days) L = Support span (laminate length), (mm) M=slope of the deflection curve in initial straight portion (N/ mm) b = Width of test beam, (mm) Graph 2. T ensile test-Specimen exposed to constant temperature 600C (stress V/s Strain at various exposed time 10 to 60 days) 51 International Journal of Composite M aterials 2012, 2(4): 48-52 Graph 6. Modulus v/s Exposure time at constant temperature 600C 4. Discussions Graph 3. Three point bending test-Specimen exposed at room temperature (Load v/s Deflection exposed time 30 to 180days) Graph 4. Three point bending test-Specimen exposed at temperature 60degrees (Load v/s deflection exposed time 10 to 60days) The experimental results reveal that the GFRP (EGlass/Polyester) samples subjected to waters absorption at room temperature (results as shown in Graph5) the tensile modules has been rapidly reduced till 90 days and there a moderate reduction in it, whereas the flexural modulus has sharp reduction in the first 60 days and then a gradual reduction is observed . The samples subjected to aging at the constant temperature water bath (60ºC) showed a hyperbolic decrement in the tensile strength and the flexural modules (as shown in Graph6). On the whole it was observed that tensile modulus decreased to some extent with the presence of mo isture and temperature. There is significant reduction in modulus because of loosing bonding strength of the polyester resin and fibre inter phase at room temperature. It is clear that the flexural modulus rapidly decreases with hydro aging and hydrothermal aging, because moisture generally affects any property which is do minated by the matrix and/or interface. However the flexu ral strength being a fibre dominated property the strength reduction occurs only if the fibres themselves are affected by hydrothermal environ mental co n d itio n s .. The GFRP specimen showed a 66.7% reduction in the young’s modules due to the increase in the water bath temperature, i.e., there is a considerable effect of the bath temperature on the mechanical properties of the GFRP co mp o s ites . Graph 5. Modulus v/s Exposure time at room Temperature 5. Conclusions Fro m the investigation it is observed that there is a remarkable reduction in mechanical strength (young’s and flexu ral modulus) is observed in GFRP co mposite laminates which are subjected to different environ mental conditions a exposure time. The flexural strength values of the specimens are decreased with exposure period of 60days in water at constant temperature. As per the results initially rapid reduction in mechanical properties is observed and P. Sampath Rao et al.: An Investigation on Strength Degradation of Gfrp Laminates Under Environmental Impact 52 gradual decrease is observed during next phase. Hodgkinson Wood Head Publishing Limited. The follo wing important conclusions were drawn fro m test results. a). The presence of mo isture or water part icles in the matrix, fibre-matrix interface and also attack on the glass fibres are all the reason for reduction of properties is due to interfacia l bond damage.  Springer G.S. Environmental effects on Composite materials Vol.2(1984),Lancaster PA:Technomic publishing co.inc.  Dionysis E. M ouzakis Helen Zoga and Costas Galiotis “Accelerated environmental ageing study of polyester/glass fiber reinforced composites (GFRPCs)-2007 b).The tensile and flexu ral modulus reduction is more in  Environmental effects on bamboo-glass-polypropylene Hygrothermal aging when compare to hydro aging because hybrid composites M oe M oeKinLiao 38 (2003) 363– 376 the Temperature accelerated the aging processes  The "Durability of bamboo-glass fiber reinforced polymer c).It is worth noticing that aging at higher temperatures caused colour change in samples. e).The change in tensile properties of laminates during matrix hybrid composites" by author MOE M OE THWE, KIN LIO publised in journal of Composites Science and Technology 63 (2003) 375–387 aging are due to of Hygrotherma l degradation of g lass fibre,  The environmental stress corrosion cracking of glass fibre- matrix interface. reinforced laminates and single E-glass filaments by author F.R.JONES. J.W.ROCK,J.E.BAILEY (19833)1059-1071 REFERENCES  Chin j.w.Nguyen.T and Aouadi.K (1997) “Effect of Environmental Exposure on Fiber-Reinforced Plastics (FRP) M aterials Used in Construction” Journal of Composite Technology&Research 19(4), 205-213.  Arnold J.C., Environmental stress crack initiation in glassy polymers, Trends in Polymer Science 1996, 4, 403-408.  Imielinska K., Acid-induced cracking of hybrid aramidglass/epoxy composites, Proc. Conf. EDEM 2003, Bordeau  KrystynaImielinska, Environmental stress cracking in eglass And aramid/glass epoxy composites, KOMPOZYTY (COM POSITES) 6(2006)4.  M echanical testing of advanced fiber composites J M  Wan B, Petrou MF, Harries KA. The effects of the presence of water on the durability of bond between CFRP and concrete. J Reinf Plast Composites 2006; 25(8):875–90.  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