Properties of sugarcane / coconut shell fiber reinforced phenolic resin matrix composites
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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Composite M aterials 2013, 3(6): 156-162 DOI: 10.5923/j.cmaterials.20130306.03 Characteristics of Sugarcane/Coir Fibres Reinforced Composites in Phenol Formaldehyde Resin S. D. Asgekar1,*, V. K. Joshi2, Priti S. Futane1, P. S. Joshi1 1Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, India 2Shri Gurugovindsinghji Institute of Engineer ing and Techology, Nanded, India Abstract Sugarcane being the agricultural waste can be effectively used in combination with coir for enhancement of the mechanical properties of co mposites. The sugarcane fibres/coir reinforced composites were made in phenol formaldehyde resin. Co mposite sheets were made with three different thickness values, viz. 2.5mm, 6mm and 10mm. Four varieties of sugarcane namely CO86032, COVSI9805, COM 265 and COC671 with 14 month maturity period were taken for making the composites. The properties of composites are compared with 100% co ir co mposites. The average tensile strength, Izod impact strength, compressive strength, water holding capacity for sugarcane/coir reinforced co mposites increases, while flexu ral strength decreases with thickness of composite sheets. These composites with fairly good mechanical properties can be used as structural materials like false ceiling. Keywords Sugarcane Fibres, Coir Fibres, Phenol Formaldehyde Resin, Co mposites, False Ceiling 1. Introduction e xplored. Nowadays, the natural fibres reinforced co mposites have received much attention in producing potential structural materials. The natural fib res such as jute, sisal, coir, banana, sugarcane, hemp have many attractive characteristics like low density, less abrasive, low cost, biodegradability, and renewability over traditional glass and organic fibres[1, 2]. Sugarcane bagasse is a waste product widely generated in high proportion in sugar mill. It is a fibrous residue left over after crushing and extraction of juice fro m the sugarcane. Sugarcane fibres are extracted fro m the hard encrusting material of sugarcane plant called as rind, by alkali treatment. Recently many studies have been reported on the bagasse/ sugarcane fibre reinforced composites. Sugarcane being the agricultural waste can be effectively used in combination with coir for enhancement of the mechanical properties of composites. Bagasse based thermoplastic co mposites can replace wood in applications such as furniture and interior p an els . In this study we have made an attempt to manufacture the sug arcan e / co ir fib re rein fo rced co mp os it e in p heno l formaldehyde resin and the properties are co mpared with 100% coir reinforced co mposite. A lso the possibility of its probable use in structural materials such as false ceiling is * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (S. D. Asgekar) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials In this study four Sugarcane (saccharum officinarum) varieties, namely CO86032, COVSI9805, COM 265 and COC671, with maturity period of 14 months were collected fro m Jawahar Sahakari Sugar M ills limited, Hupari, Maharashtra (India). The coir (cocos nucifera) fib res were collected fro m Central Institute of Coir Technology, Coir Board, Bangalore (India). Phenol formaldehyde resin was purchased from market. 2.2. Methods 2.2.1. Extract ion of Sugar Cane Fibres The extraction of fibres involved the following steps. i) Mechanical separation: The sugarcane samples of above mentioned varieties were subjected to miniature juice ext ractor wherein sugarcane juice was s eparated from bagasse. The soft core part pith was removed fro m bagasse manually. The hard rind was then cut across the length so that it is free fro m nodes. ii) Chemical extraction: The rind was then subjected to hot water treatment (material to liquor ratio 1:50). In this process, rind was kept in hot water at around 90°c for one hour, fo r removal of colouring matters and traces of sugar. It was then dried in the International Journal of Composite M aterials 2013, 3(6): 156-162 157 sunlight. Finally, the rind was subjected to 0.1N NaOH treatment. This process was carried out at boiling water temperature for four hours at atmospheric pressure, with material to liquor ratio 1:100(fig 1). A stirring action was used to enhance the fibre separation. The well separated fibres were then sun dried. web. In this process the fibres were mixed with coir in the ratio 4:1. The mixture was then subjected to Besch NR_ 51 needle punching machine for the format ion of web. The needle density used in the formation of web was 800 needles per square feet. The web so formed was then used for manufacturing the co mposite. Figure 1. Chemical Extraction Process 2.2.2. Manufacturing of Nonwovens It involves the following stages i) Carding: The carding process involves the separation of fibres. The fibres extracted fro m given variet ies were subjected to the Bau Bremen 838 carding machine for effective opening of fib res . Figure 4. Besch NR_51 needle punching machine Figure 2. Sugarcane fibres Figure 5. Hydraulic hot press Figure 3. Coir fibres ii) Web Formati on: The well separated fibres were used for the formation of Figure 6. Composite sheet 2.2.3. Co mposite Manufacturing Sugarcane/coir and pure coir fibre co mposites were 158 S. D. Asgekar et al.: Char acteristics of Sugar cane/Coir Fibres Reinforced Composites in Phenol Formaldehyde Resin manufactured by hot press molding machine (US SD, GM D888). In this process fibre web was imp regnated in phenol formaldehyde resin, with fibre to resin rat io 1:1. The impregnated web was sun dried for one hour and then pressed by hydraulic hot press at 40kg/sq feet at 130℃ for 6min. Co mposites sheets were made with three different thickness values, viz. 2.5mm, 6mm and 10mm. 3. Testing 3.1. Fi bre Testing i) Fi bre fi neness: The fineness of sugarcane fibre was measured by gravimetric method according to ASTM D1577-07 standards. A bundle of fibres was weighed and total length of fibres in a bundle was measured. ii) Tensile Properties: The tensile test was carried out on the Instron5565 tester. This test was conducted according to the ASTMD 3379 standards (specimen length 25cm, speed of testing 2mm/ min). 4. Result and Discussion The properties of sugarcane and coir fibres are summarized in the fo llo wing table 1. Table 1. Tensile properties of sugarcane and coir fibre Fibre CO86032 Maximum load (gf) 420.08 Ext en sio n (%) 2.8 Tenacity at maximum load (gf/t ex ) 14 Fibre Fineness (T ex) 30 COVSI9805 465.28 3.18 16.12 26.86 COM265 533.69 2.41 15.33 32.93 COC671 390.04 3.24 13.34 29.24 Coir 558.49 29.35 20.68 27.20 The specifications of composites are S1 = Co 86032+ coir, S2 = Co VSI9805+ coir, S3 = Co m 265+ co ir, S4 = Coc671+ coir, C =100% co ir. The results are analysed by two way ANOVA technique. 3.2. Composite Testing The composite sheets were subjected to various mechanica l tests. i) Tensile testing: The Tensile test was performed on Universal Tensile Machine (UTM), according to ASTM D638 standards. The test was carried out at cross head speed 50mm/ min with span distance of 250mm. ii) Compressive testing: The Co mp ressive test was performed on Universal Tensile Machine (UTM), according to ASTM D695 standards. The test was carried out at cross head speed 1.3mm/ min with span distance of 100mm. iii) Flexural testing: The Flexural test was performed on Un iversal Tensile Machine (UTM) according to ASTM D790 standards. The test was carried out at cross head speed 1.3mm/ min with span distance of 100mm. iv) Izod Impact testing: The Izod impact test was performed on Izod impact tester, according to ASTM D256 standards. v) Water absorption testing: This test was conducted according to ASTM D590 standards. The percentage water absorption was calculated by the weight difference between dry and wet samples. The formula for percentage water absorption is given below. ∆M (%) = (Mf − Mi / Mi ) X 100 Where Mf and Mi are the respective weights of wet and dry s amp les . 4.1. Tensile Strength The statistical analysis reveals that there is significant increase in tensile strength of all sugarcane /coir composites compared to 100% coir. Co mposites made fro m sugarcane/ coir for all cases shows no significant difference in tensile strength which indicates that the tensile strength is independent of variety. The average tensile strength for all cases increases significantly with thickness. The higher values of sugarcane /coir co mposite are main ly attributed to the lower density of sugarcane fibres. In the given volume of composite more number of sugarcane fibres are accommodated as compared to the coir fibres. Due to which there is increase in tensile strength of sugarcane/coir reinforced co mposites. Especially at 10 mm thickness, there is steep rise in tensile strength .usually the structural materials for which tensile strength is important property, the composite sheets with 10 mm thickness can be used e xclus ively. Table 2. Average tensile strength of composites Com posi te spe cification S1 S2 S3 S4 C Te nsile strength (N) Th i ckness in mm 2.5mm 6mm 10mm 126.346 202.0516 3477.812 104.2938 208.2188 4089.002 86.840 137.923 4088.688 92.7472 175.987 3550.032 61.840 80.819 2897.964 International Journal of Composite M aterials 2013, 3(6): 156-162 159 Tensile Strength (N) 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 C Composite Specifications 2.5mm 6mm 10mm Graph 1. Tensile strength of composites 4.2. Compressive Strength Composite spe cification S1 S2 S3 S4 C Table 3. Average compressive strength of composites Compressive strength (N/mm2) 2.5mm 3.448 3.328 5.372 1.818 7.194 Th i ckness in mm 6mm 6.245 7.686 6.63 2.043 16.233 10mm 6.856 8.375 13.635 4.264 20.844 The statistical analysis reveals that there is significant decrease in Co mpressive strength of all sugarcane /coir composites compared to 100% coir composite. The compressive strength of case S4 is lowest while S3 shows higher values. The rest two cases show moderate values of co mpressive strength. The average Compressive strength for all cases increases significantly with thickness. The high compressive strength of 100% coir co mposite can be attributed to its high extensibility co mpared to s u garcan e. 25 Compressive Strength (N/mm2) 20 15 2.5mm 10 6mm 10mm 5 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 C Composite Specifications Graph 2. Compressive strength of composites 160 S. D. Asgekar et al.: Char acteristics of Sugar cane/Coir Fibres Reinforced Composites in Phenol Formaldehyde Resin 4.3. Flexural Strength Composite spe cification S1 S2 S3 S4 C Table 4. Average flexural strength of composites Fle xural strength (N/mm2) 2.5mm 11.256 10.118 14.43 19.894 14.482 Th i ckness in mm 6mm 11.939 8.344 12.95 7.779 22.478 10mm 9.929 6.645 18.82 4.204 16.44 The statistical analysis reveals that there is significant difference in flexural strength of all sugarcane /coir co mposites compared to 100% coir co mposite. Co mposites made fro m sugarcane/coir for all cases shows no significant difference in flexu ral strength which indicates flexural strength is independent of variety. The average flexu ral strength at 2.5mm thickness is comparat ively better for all cases of sugarcane/coir co mposites. In general the flexu ral strength of 100% coir co mposite is high compared to sugarcane/coir co mposites. The flexural strength which is the measure of resistance to bending can be related to the extensibility of fib res. Since the extensibility of coir is high in co mparison with sugarcane, its flexural strength is high. 25 Flexural Strength (N/mm2) 20 15 2.5mm 10 6mm 10mm 5 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 C Composite Specifications Graph 3. Flexural strength of composites 4.4. Impact Strength Composite spe cification S1 S2 S3 S4 C Table 5. Average impact strength of composites Impact strength (J/mtr) 2.5mm 108.126 114.87 138.956 116.616 71.579 Th i ckness in mm 6mm 89.472 160.494 149.9 66.836 45.559 10mm 158.58 140.914 175.228 182.326 61.948 The statistical analysis reveals that there is significant increase in impact strength of all sugarcane /coir reinforced composites compared to 100% co ir composites. Co mposites made fro m sugarcane/coir for all cases shows no significant difference in impact strength which indicates that it is independent of variety. The average impact strength shows no specific trend with respect to thickness but impact strength for all cases corresponding to 10 mm thic kness is consistently high. The high values of impact strength for sugarcane/coir reinforced co mposite can be correlated to its tensile strength. International Journal of Composite M aterials 2013, 3(6): 156-162 161 Impact Strength (J/mt) 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 C Composite Specifications 2.5mm 6mm 10mm 4.5. Water Absorption Test Composite spe cification S1 S2 S3 S4 C Graph 4. Impact strength of composites Table 6. Average water absorption in percent 2.5mm 82.84 67.91 75.87 86.215 54.405 Water Absorption (%) Th i ckness in mm 6mm 101.75 109.5 57.766 109.605 47.81 10mm 107.08 90.30 73.815 98.395 71.525 The statistical analysis reveals that there is significant increase in water absorption for all cases of sugarcane/coir composites compared to 100% coir co mposite. Co mposites made fro m sugarcane/coir for all cases show no significant difference in water absorption which indicates water absorption is independent of variety. The water absorption shows no specific trend with respect to thickness. The higher values of water absorption in case of sugarcane /coir reinforced composites are mainly related to the more nu mber of sugarcane fibres that can be accommodated in the given volume of composite. The high values of water absorption for sugarcane/coir based composites confirm its suitability in the false ceiling which can maintain the moisture level in the hall. 120 100 Water Absorption (%) 80 60 2.5mm 40 6mm 10mm 20 0 S1 S2 S3 S4 C Composite Specifications Graph 5. Water absorption of composites in percentage 162 S. D. Asgekar et al.: Char acteristics of Sugar cane/Coir Fibres Reinforced Composites in Phenol Formaldehyde Resin 5. Conclusions The results can be summarized as follows The average tensile strength for all cases shows significant increase with thickness. The tensile strength increases significantly for sugarcane/coir composites in comparison with 100% coir co mposites. The average Co mpressive strength for all cases increases significantly with thickness. Compressive strength of all sugarcane /coir co mposites shows significant decrease in comparison with 100% coir co mposite. The average flexural strength of all sugarcane /coir composites shows significant difference compared to 100% coir co mposite. The average impact strength of all sugarcane /coir composites increases significantly co mpared to 100% coir composite. The impact strength shows no specific trend with respect to thickness but it is consistently high for all cases corresponding to 10 mm thickness. The water absorption of all sugarcane /coir co mposites increases significantly co mpared to 100% coir co mposite. There is no specific trend for water absorption with respect to thickness. The high values of water absorption for sugarcane/coir based composites confirm its suitability in the false ceiling. As far as the varieties are concerned no significant difference was found in these properties indicating the performance of co mposites is independent of variety. In general mechanical properties of sugarcane /coir mix reinforced co mposites corresponding to 10mm thickness are fairly good and can be used as the structural materials. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Author is thankful to Principal Prof (Dr.) P. V. Kadole and head of the department Prof. (Dr.) U. J. Patil, of Text ile and engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, (India), for their encouragement. REFERENCES  A. K. Bledzeki and J. Gassan, “Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibre”, Prog. Polym. Sci., 24 (1999), 221.  A. K. M ohanty, M . M ishra and G. Hinrichsen, “Biofibres, biodegradable polymers and biocomposites: An overview”, M acromole. M ater. Eng., 1 (2000), 276/277.  Collier. B., Collier J., Agarwal. P., “Extraction of fibres from sugarcane”, Textile Research Journal, 12, 1992, P 741-748.  M onteiro, S. N. Rodriquez, R. J. S., and De Souza, M . V., “Sugarcane bagasse waste in low cost composites”, Advance Performance M aterials, 1998, 5(3), 183-191.
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